|Abstract or Summary
- Level of aspiration plays a part in achievement motivation which
supports teaching/learning in motor performances. In the past,
females reported poorer ability in performances, set lower levels of
aspiration, and had lesser achievement motives than males (Crandall,
1969; Stein & Bailey, 1973; Sumner & Johnson, 1949). Some researchers
found there were no gender differences in performance and aspiration
levels (Kearney, 1984; Gill, Gross, Huddleston, & Shifflett, 1984).
The purpose of this study was to determine if differential
relationships existed in levels of aspiration and tennis backboard
test performance for males and females, to determine the effects of
aspiration setting on performance between two experimental groups, and
to investigate the goal discrepancy scores between males and females
in the aspiration group.
A total of 28 males and 19 females were divided into two groups:
aspiration setting and non-aspiration setting. They were classified
as intermediate tennis players.
The Hewitt Tennis Backboard Test (1965) was given to all males
and females in both the experimental and control groups. Levels of aspiration were set only by the experimental group. These performance
tests and aspiration settings were repeated four times. The control
group was asked to perform only the performance test. All subjects
were given knowledge of previous results. Five performance test
scores and four level of aspiration scores from the experimental
group, and five performance test scores from the control group were
collected during a period of five weeks. All data were treated by
analysis of variance.
The results indicated that there were no significant gender
differences on the tennis performance score, aspiration setting score,
and goal discrepancy score in the aspiration setting group. There
were, however, statistically gender differences on performance scores
in the non-aspiration setting group. There were no significant
differences in performance scores between the experimental and control
In contrast to the previous research studies, the above findings
showed there were no gender differences on performance and level of
aspiration, and no differences between aspiration setting and nonaspiration
setting groups on performance scores. However, there were
gender differences in performance in the non-aspiration setting group.