Geology of the middle and upper Eocene McIntosh Formation and adjacent volcanic and sedimentary rock units, Willapa Hills, Pacific County, southwest Washington Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/jm214r389

Descriptions

Attribute NameValues
Creator
Abstract or Summary
  • The early to middle Eocene submarine basalts of the Crescent Formation form the core and basement of the structurally uplifted Willapa Hills region of southwest Washington. The formation consists of a thick sequence of predominantly subalkaline, tholeiitic pillow basalts and breccias formed as oceanic crust and seamounts at a sea floor spreading ridge or pull apart basin along the rifting continental margin of North America. Radiometric (Ar⁴⁰ - Ar³⁹) dating of the pillow basalt indicates an age of approximately 53 - 55 Ma for the formation. Foraminifera collected from mudstones interbedded with the pillow basalts of the Crescent Formation in southwestern Pacific County indicate a Ulatisian to lower Narizian (middle Eocene) age for the basalts and suggest that they were erupted in lower-middle bathyal (1500 - 2000 m) water depths. Locally associated with the pillow basalts are hyaloclastic basalt breccias and basaltic sandstones. Overlying, and interbedded with the basalts of the Crescent Formation is the middle and upper Eocene McIntosh Formation, which is composed of three members (informal). Stratigraphically from the lowest, these members are: 1) Fork Creek member; 2) Lebam member, 3) McIntosh Volcanics member. The Fork Creek member consists of a thick sequence of normally graded, micaceous, coarse- to fine-grained, arkosic and lithic arkosic sandstones deposited by sand-rich, high concentration turbidity currents in the deep marine-marginal basin. The turbidites were fed by a fluvial system carrying granitic and metamorphic detritus derived from erosion of Mesozoic crystalline rocks of the Okanagan Uplift region of northeastern Washington and southeastern British Columbia, and possibly the Idaho Batholith. Lithologically equivalent, shallow-marine and fluvial-deltaic sandstones with quartz and chert pebbles include the middle Eocene Carbonado Formation of the Puget Group and the upper portion of the type McIntosh Formation to the east. Microprobe determination of composition of plagioclase microlites and phenocrysts in volcanic fragments in the sandstones indicate a proximal volcanic source such as a pre Western Cascade basaltic andesite (e.g. Northcraft Volcanics) or possibly Challis Volcanics further east. Paleocurrent measurements suggest that dispersal of the turbidity flows to the west southwest within the basin was controlled by the active volcanic highs of the Crescent Formation. Lithofacies and foraminifers suggest that the Fork Creek member represents a small lowstand fan deposited during a fall in relative sea level either due to eustatic sea-level drop and/or tectonic uplift of the basin. Numerous dikes and sill-like bodies of porphyritic basalt to gabbro intrude both the pillow basalts of the Crescent Formation and micaceous arkosic sandstones of the Fork Creek member. These intrusions are generally concentrated near the contact between the two units and some appear to be fault controlled. Based upon major and trace element compositions,the intrusions can be separated into two types. The first type consists of subalkaline tholeiitic basalts and gabbros chemically equivalent to the oceanic basalt of the Crescent Formation. Radiometric dating of one of these sills which intrudes the upper portion of the Fork Creek member of the McIntosh formation is 48.7 + 0.5 Ma. These intrusions likely represent late stage events associated with waning activity of the Crescent basalts. The second group of intrusive rocks consists of high TiO₂ alkaline basalts similar in composition to the nearby subaerial basalt and basaltic andesite flows of the middle (?) to upper Eocene Grays River Volcanics. Radiometric dating of a trachybasalt dike from this group indicate an age of 41.4 + 0.7 Ma. Magnetic polarity measurements indicate that most middle Eocene basalts of the Crescent Formation formed at a time of normal magnetic polarity. Later intrusive equivalents of the Crescent Formation and the Grays River Volcanics typically show reversed magnetic polarities. An abrupt transgressive event due to eustatic sea level rise and/ or tectonic subsidence within the basin is recognized by the deposition of the thick sequence of deeper marine mudstones, siltstones, and minor distal, thin bedded, micaceous arkosic turbidites of the middle to upper Eocene Lebam member of the McIntosh Formation. This transgression is accompanied by a landward shift in the supply of arkosic sand-rich sediments and a hiatus of deposition of arkosic sand in this portion of the basin. The sea level transgression may be due to thermal subsidence of the basin at the cessation of Crescent volcanism. Massive to weakly bedded basaltic tuff and tuff breccia of the McIntosh Volcanics member is locally interbedded with the deep-marine strata in the upper portion of the Lebam member. This basaltic aquagene tuff may be associated with similar tuffs within the Grays River Volcanics elsewhere. Fine-grained, glauconitic sandstones of the basal portion of the latest Eocene to Oligocene Lincoln Creek Formation conformably overlie deep-marine strata of the Lebam member. The sandstone is generally massive, bioturbated, and contains gastropods and articulated pelecypod fossils These sandstones were deposited during a time of low sedimentation rates and represent progradation of shallow-marine sands during a period of highstand in relative sea level. Thin section and quantitative analyses by permeameter of the fine- to medium-grained arkosic sandstones of the Fork Creek member indicate relatively good porosity. However, the formation of authigenic pore-lining nontronite (smectitic) and/or chlorite clay rim cement, zeolites, and sparry calcite during diagenesis has significantly reduced permeability making these well-indurated turbidite strata of marginal reservoir quality. However, diagenetic effects such as dissolution of lithic framework grains and feldspar is observed and may enhance the porosity and permeability of the sandstones in the subsurface and subsequently improve the reservoir quality locally. Hydrocarbon source rock potential of mudstones within the Fork Creek and Lebam members indicate that these strata are generally organically lean and gas-prone (type III kerogen) with little or no potential for formation of liquid hydrocarbons. Mudstones are typically thermally immature (e.g. Ro < .494%), although, heating by proximal basaltic intrusions in the area is observed to result in local thermal maturation of some sedimentary strata into the oil window and beyond. Northwest-trending, high-angle, right lateral, oblique-slip faults are the dominant structural feature in the area. A subordinate set of northeast-trending faults appears to be truncated by the northwest-trending faults, and could represent an earlier episode of faulting or could possibly be en echelon and conjugate structures. The structural pattern is similar to that mapped in the Mist gas field of northwest Oregon. Northwest-trending faults commonly juxtapose arkosic sandstones of the Fork Creek member against volcanics of the Crescent Formation and large intrusive units or against the siltstone- and mudstone-rich overlying Lebam member. These faults could form structural traps for hydrocarbons if present in the subsurface to the north and east. Other possible traps include stratigraphic pinch outs and channeling of the arkosic sand-rich turbidites of the Fork Creek member within deep marine mudstones or onlap of these reservoir sands against volcanic highs within the basin. The thick fine-grained strata of the overlying Lebam member and the glauconitic sandstone of the Lincoln Creek Formation could act as a seal for the "reservoir sandstones" of the Fork Creek member.
Resource Type
Date Available
Date Issued
Degree Level
Degree Name
Degree Field
Degree Grantor
Commencement Year
Advisor
Academic Affiliation
Non-Academic Affiliation
Subject
Rights Statement
Language
Digitization Specifications
  • Master files scanned at 600 ppi (256 Grayscale, 24-bit Color) using Capture Perfect 3.082 on a Canon DR-9080C in TIF format. PDF derivative scanned at 300 ppi (256 B&W, 256 Grayscale, 24-bit Color), using Capture Perfect 3.082, on a Canon DR-9080C. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR. Plates: Master file scanned at 600 dpi, 24-bit color on a Paradigm ImagePRO GxT 42 HD (OEM version of ColortracSmartLF Bx 42). Image manipulated by SmartLF1.3.05.
Replaces
Additional Information
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2009-08-06T21:09:45Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 7 PlateIII.tif: 26991792 bytes, checksum: 8c7a246fa5bea590fd4b86ddd3cc47a6 (MD5) PlateII.tif: 58312936 bytes, checksum: 12a97cfec3f4c34eef17d6a777e7d06b (MD5) PlateI.tif: 83035136 bytes, checksum: d97254eb6d17675f34179f1603821740 (MD5) PlateIII.jpg: 734598 bytes, checksum: 53b8b6d78c917733bbee52c8f9019ec8 (MD5) PlateII.jpg: 251313 bytes, checksum: 004e4ce74fbc2dd3a8fdfde27ca7aae8 (MD5) PlateI.jpg: 1596061 bytes, checksum: e0b67a90026d62b24c0e5e8352b8c93c (MD5) MoonthartSteveRene1993.pdf: 5605252 bytes, checksum: 2c1dc86cb9d2994b12a7b767533d7402 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2009-08-06T21:09:45Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 7 PlateIII.tif: 26991792 bytes, checksum: 8c7a246fa5bea590fd4b86ddd3cc47a6 (MD5) PlateII.tif: 58312936 bytes, checksum: 12a97cfec3f4c34eef17d6a777e7d06b (MD5) PlateI.tif: 83035136 bytes, checksum: d97254eb6d17675f34179f1603821740 (MD5) PlateIII.jpg: 734598 bytes, checksum: 53b8b6d78c917733bbee52c8f9019ec8 (MD5) PlateII.jpg: 251313 bytes, checksum: 004e4ce74fbc2dd3a8fdfde27ca7aae8 (MD5) PlateI.jpg: 1596061 bytes, checksum: e0b67a90026d62b24c0e5e8352b8c93c (MD5) MoonthartSteveRene1993.pdf: 5605252 bytes, checksum: 2c1dc86cb9d2994b12a7b767533d7402 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2009-08-06T20:50:00Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 7 PlateIII.tif: 26991792 bytes, checksum: 8c7a246fa5bea590fd4b86ddd3cc47a6 (MD5) PlateII.tif: 58312936 bytes, checksum: 12a97cfec3f4c34eef17d6a777e7d06b (MD5) PlateI.tif: 83035136 bytes, checksum: d97254eb6d17675f34179f1603821740 (MD5) PlateIII.jpg: 734598 bytes, checksum: 53b8b6d78c917733bbee52c8f9019ec8 (MD5) PlateII.jpg: 251313 bytes, checksum: 004e4ce74fbc2dd3a8fdfde27ca7aae8 (MD5) PlateI.jpg: 1596061 bytes, checksum: e0b67a90026d62b24c0e5e8352b8c93c (MD5) MoonthartSteveRene1993.pdf: 5605252 bytes, checksum: 2c1dc86cb9d2994b12a7b767533d7402 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Submitted by Sara Mintonye (smscanner@gmail.com) on 2009-08-06T20:43:18Z No. of bitstreams: 7 PlateIII.tif: 26991792 bytes, checksum: 8c7a246fa5bea590fd4b86ddd3cc47a6 (MD5) PlateII.tif: 58312936 bytes, checksum: 12a97cfec3f4c34eef17d6a777e7d06b (MD5) PlateI.tif: 83035136 bytes, checksum: d97254eb6d17675f34179f1603821740 (MD5) PlateIII.jpg: 734598 bytes, checksum: 53b8b6d78c917733bbee52c8f9019ec8 (MD5) PlateII.jpg: 251313 bytes, checksum: 004e4ce74fbc2dd3a8fdfde27ca7aae8 (MD5) PlateI.jpg: 1596061 bytes, checksum: e0b67a90026d62b24c0e5e8352b8c93c (MD5) MoonthartSteveRene1993.pdf: 5605252 bytes, checksum: 2c1dc86cb9d2994b12a7b767533d7402 (MD5)

Relationships

In Administrative Set:
Last modified: 08/08/2017 Default
Citations:

EndNote | Zotero | Mendeley

Items