Changes in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and red blood cell pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentration during an oral glucose tolerance test in persons with diabetes mellitus Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/jw827g180

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  • The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the overall changes in concentration of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), red blood cell PLP (rbc PLP) and plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in persons with diabetes mellitus (DM), and to test the hypothesis that the decrease in plasma PLP concentration that occurs with increasing plasma glucose would be explained by a subsequent increase in rbc PLP concentration. A second objective was to compare the distribution of PLP between the red blood cell and the plasma (as measured by the rbc PLP/ plasma PLP ratio) in persons with diabetes to the distribution in non-diabetic controls. The third objective was to measure fasting plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, and to compare it to fasting plasma PLP concentrations, fasting rbc PLP concentrations, and the rbc PLP/plasma PLP ratio. The purpose of this third objective was to test the hypothesis that an increased plasma AP activity in persons with DM would be associated with decreased plasma PLP and increased rbc PLP concentrations. The study included 8 persons (3F; 5M) with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), 9 persons (5F; 4M) with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 18 healthy control individuals (9F; 9M). All subjects were given a 75 gm oral D-glucose dose, and blood was drawn at 0 (fasting), 30, 60 and 120 minutes after the glucose load. Plasma glucose, PLP, insulin, and rbc PLP concentrations were measured at all time points during the OGTT. Fasting plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, percent glycosylated hemoglobin (%GlyHb), and the ratio between fasting rbc PLP and fasting plasma PLP were also determined. In general, females with DM were in poorer diabetic control as compared to males with DM. Mean fasting glucose levels, %GlyHb and body mass index (BMI) were highest in females with DM as compared to all other groups, and fasting insulin was nearly 2x higher in females with NIDDM as compared to males with NIDDM. There was an overall decrease in plasma PLP during the OGTT with increasing plasma glucose, which agrees with results from other studies. The overall decrease in plasma PLP (as measured by the negative, cumulative area under the curve: -AUC plp) was significantly correlated with the overall increase in plasma glucose (as measured by the positive, cumulative area under the curve: +AUC glu) for all study groups. The relationship was stronger in all males, and control females as compared to females with diabetes (p< 0.001 vs. p< 0.01, respectively). This difference was in part explained by lower mean fasting PLP levels in females with DM (19.3 nmol/L), as compared to males with DM (47.2nmol/L) and male and female controls (35.4 nmol/L and 34.0 nmol/L, respectively). The changes in rbc PLP during the OGTT were minimal, and did not significantly correlate with the increase in plasma glucose or the decrease in plasma PLP. Thus, the acute drop in plasma PLP concentration that occurred during the OGTT was not explained by a subsequent increase in rbc PLP concentration, as had been hypothesized. However, the higher than normal % glycosylated hemoglobin levels along with elevated rbc PLP concentrations in persons with diabetes as compared to controls suggests that chronically elevated blood glucose can contribute to increased rbc PLP concentrations. This was the first study to date that has measured rbc PLP in persons with diabetes mellitus. Rbc PLP values for persons with DM were 20-40% greater than respective control values at all time points during the OGTT. These differences between mean rbc PLP in persons with DM as compared to control groups were all statistically significant (p< 0.05) with the exception of the difference in the mean fasting rbc PLP value for females with NIDDM as compared to controls. The mean values ± standard deviations (SD) for fasting rbc PLP (nmol/L) were as follows: Females-IDDM, 49.5 ± 6.5; NIDDM, 39.3 ± 4.9; controls, 31.4 ± 9.0; Males-IDDM, 37.8 ± 10.9; NIDDM, 45.6 ± 12.3; controls, 28.3 ± 4.4. The ratio of fasting rbc PLP concentration to fasting plasma PLP concentration was 2-3x higher in females with DM as compared to control females and all male groups. Females with IDDM had a ratio of 3.2, and the ratio for females with NIDDM was 2.2. The ratios for all male groups, and control females were approximately 1:1, with a range of 0.8-1.2. The mean fasting plasma AP activity was within the normal range for all study groups. However, females with DM had higher AP activity (0.543 μkat/L) as compared to female controls and males with DM (0.408 μkat/L, .425 μkat/L, respectively p<0.05). There were no significant differences in mean fasting plasma AP activity between any male group (range 0.390-0.465 μkat/L). These results suggest that increased plasma glucose levels, increased AP activity, and overall poor glycemic control contribute to decreased plasma PLP concentrations, increased rbc PLP concentrations, and possibly to changes in the PLP distribution within the body.
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