Input/output energy analysis of regional water pollution control Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/jw827g41s

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  • Two strategic approaches to water quality control in Oregon's Willamette River are presently being utilized: point source treatment and flow augmentation. Dry weather releases from reservoirs are for authorized purposes other than water quality. Reservoirs can participate in pollution control by summer flow augmentation where authorized water resource objectives (flood control, navigation, etc.) are not sacrificed. It is hypothesized that the differences in total energy impact between treatment and augmentation may be substantial. Of additional interest is the comparison between direct utilization of energy for Willamette Valley pollution control and the indirect energy requirements of such programs. Input/Output analysis (I/O) provides an econometric methodology to study direct and indirect energy response to pollution control alternatives. An energy I/O national model is coupled with a comprehensive Willamette River dissolved oxygen model. Discharge and loadings are empirically related to surveyed direct dollar and energy expenses. These costs are then transformed by I/O to total energy costs. Three approaches to environmental control for the Willamette are examined. One is that of current enforcement coupled with present levels of augmentation. Another consists of less augmentation and increased wastewater treatment. Appropriate tactics involve advanced secondary methods of treatment, regionalization of treatment plants, and yet more stringent effluent requirements for industry. The third approach consists of increased flow augmentation for water quality control. Corresponding treatment is somewhat relaxed. Each alternative of environmental control is evaluated as if it had been practiced in a study year of low natural runoff. The relation of augmentation for water quality to other river uses is used to value flow in a benefits-foregone manner. Independently, reservoir costs are allocated to water quality. An instream unit price is thus assigned to augmentation. For each alternative of treatment and augmentation, the dissolved oxygen quality of the Willamette is simulated and the costs of the environmental strategy estimated. River quality, dollar cost, and energy impact response surfaces are developed. Indirect energy costs, largely expended out of the region, are roughly twice the direct energy use. Because of the predominance of treatment expenses over augmentation cost and the energy-intensive nature of treatment, energy impact is substantially a reflection of treatment degree. Because augmentation reduces treatment environmentally required, energy and dollar efficient management calls for the full role of augmentation in water quality control. To a reasonable degree this has in fact been carried out. Policies of the region are compared; the present commitments to environmental improvement and economic development are found to contradict the area's energy objectives.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-10-30T19:03:47Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 HeggenRichardJ1978.pdf: 2159839 bytes, checksum: bbc21649184fbde615f456c3eac2d884 (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Deborah Campbell(deborah.campbell@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-10-30T21:36:20Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 HeggenRichardJ1978.pdf: 2159839 bytes, checksum: bbc21649184fbde615f456c3eac2d884 (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2013-10-30T21:36:20Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 HeggenRichardJ1978.pdf: 2159839 bytes, checksum: bbc21649184fbde615f456c3eac2d884 (MD5) Previous issue date: 1978-01-25

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