Dermatitic effect of nonionic surfactants Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/jw827g465

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  • Selected nonionic surface active agents, incorporated in various ointment bases, were applied to normal rabbit skin daily in an attempt to determine their chronic toxicity. The dermatitic effects of these surfactant preparations were evaluated by three methods: gross observation, histological examination and biochemical techniques. The results indicated that the tested nonionic surfactants have a distinct potential to irritate rabbit skin, and cause histological and biochemical changes in the skin to which they are applied. It was apparent that the polyoxyethylene ether types of surfactants have the highest capacity to produce dermal reactions. These substances caused thickening, scaling and fissuring of the skin. They induced histological changes: hyperplasia, acanthosis, and various necrosis of the epidermis, edema and inflammation of the dermis. The biochemical changes measured were also the greatest with this type of surfactants. The metabolic measurements indicated a two or three-fold increase in the oxygen uptake of skin samples treated with the polyoxyethylene ether types of surfactants. The phospholipid content of skin samples treated with ten percent polyoxyethylene ether 96 was increased by 47-80 percent on the basis of phosphorus content after four days of application. The sorbitan fatty acid esters and polysorbates also had undesirable influences on rabbit skin. Depending on the type and concentration of these surfactants, they also produced various degrees of erythema, hyperkeratinization and desquamation of the skin, hyper-plasia of the epidermis and inflammation of the dermis. Undiluted polysorbate 80 and ten percent polysorbate 60 produced severe necrosis of the upper epidermis and a high number of inflammatory cells in the dermis. The oxygen uptake of skin samples treated with sorbitan fatty acid esters or polysorbates showed a two, three and fourfold increase, depending on the length of the treatment, the concentration and the type of agent used. Polysorbate 85 and sorbitan trio-leate (ten percent in petrolatum) induced a 26-53 percent and 27-58 percent increase, respectively, in phosphorus content derived from phospholipids of the rabbit epidermis. Morphological and biochemical changes induced by the above three types of surfactants resembled those of various skin diseases. Results of laboratory studies of irritants applied to animal skin are not always reliable for predicting the effects of similar materials on human skin. However, the general similarities between the properties of rabbit skin treated with surfactants and those of human skin in chronic dermatitis lead to a postulation that surfactants may play an important role in production of external dermatitis of the hands, which is one of the most common dermatoses in our modern North American society.
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  • description.provenance : Submitted by Kevin Martin (martikev@onid.orst.edu) on 2014-04-09T16:55:06Z No. of bitstreams: 1 MezeiMichael1967.pdf: 2693404 bytes, checksum: 18bc8d7eddbfb4c587e4d12af9cbee6f (MD5)
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