|Abstract or Summary
- The computation of the inverse of a number in finite fields, namely Galois Fields
GF(p) or GF(2ⁿ), is one of the most complex arithmetic operations in cryptographic
applications. In this work, we investigate the GF(p) inversion and present several phases in
the design of efficient hardware implementations to compute the Montgomery modular
inverse. We suggest a new correction phase for a previously proposed almost Montgomery
inverse algorithm to calculate the inversion in hardware. It is also presented how to obtain
a fast hardware algorithm to compute the inverse by multi-bit shifting method. The
proposed designs have the hardware scalability feature, which means that the design can fit
on constrained areas and still handle operands of any size. In order to have long-precision
calculations, the module works on small precision words. The word-size, on which the
module operates, can be selected based on the area and performance requirements. The
upper limit on the operand precision is dictated only by the available memory to store the
operands and internal results. The scalable module is in principle capable of performing
infinite-precision Montgomery inverse computation of an integer, modulo a prime number.
We also propose a scalable and unified architecture for a Montgomery inverse
hardware that operates in both GF(p) and GF(2ⁿ) fields. We adjust and modify a GF(2ⁿ)
Montgomery inverse algorithm to benefit from multi-bit shifting hardware features making
it very similar to the proposed best design of GF(p) inversion hardware.
We compare all scalable designs with fully parallel ones based on the same basic
inversion algorithm. All scalable designs consumed less area and in general showed better
performance than the fully parallel ones, which makes the scalable design a very efficient
solution for computing the long precision Montgomery inverse.
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