The effects of selected commercial detergents used at various temperatures on wool : soil removal as evaluated by radioactive tracer methods and dimensional changes Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/k35697489

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  • One purpose of this study was to evaluate three commercial detergents by comparing their removals at 70 and 120°F. of palmitic acid and clay components of a simulated natural soil which had been applied to wool yarns by immersion and abrasion methods. These detergents were a built soap and two cold water detergents designed for laundering wool. The methodology of detergency measurement became as important as the results because of controversy in the literature concerning the realism and accuracy of the techniques and soils. An artificial soil composed of clay and a simulated sebum solution containing palmitic acid, olive oil, squalene, and n-decyl alcohol was modeled after analyses of natural soils. This was deposited on wool yarns by the widely-used immersion method and an abrasion method, utilizing an abradant surface of vinyl to simulate skin. In order to obtain an accurate and quantitative measurement of detergency efficiency, radioactive tracer methods were used. Palmitic acid-C¹⁴ was utilized to trace the removal of the oil components while clay labeled with Fe⁵⁹ by ion exchange indicated the removal of the particulate portion. The activity of the C¹⁴-labeled soils was measured in a liquid scintillation counter. A new method of counting the yarns directly in the scintillation solution was patterned after the techniques for counting paper chromatograms developed by Wang and Jones (191). An Auto Gamma Spectrometer was used to measure the activity of the Fe⁵⁹ labeled soils. Because the effects of laundry variables on fabric characteristics often are as important as soil removal, the influences of the same detergents used at 70, 100, 120 and 140°F. on dimensional changes in six 100% wool fabrics of different types were compared. The fabrics were unfinished plain and twill weaves, the same plain and twill weaves which had been finished for shrinkage resistance by interfacial polymerization, a bulky knit, and a fine knit. Variances within the detergents, temperatures, soils, and application methods and all interrelationships except that of temperature versus soil were significant for soil removal. Although quantitative relationships among variables were interdependent, some general trends were indicated in this study. One cold water detergent was superior to both the other cold water detergent and the built soap in soil removal at 70 and 120°F. Increasing the temperature to 120°F. consistently resulted in greater removal of soil. A comparison of the two components of soil revealed that their removals are independent; the clay was displaced more easily than palmitic acid. The method of soil application had a great effect on the amount of soil removal. Such a reduction occurred in removal of abraded soil in comparison to that applied by immersion, that it was felt that the abrasion method may have been too severe. The radioactive tracer techniques proved to be an accurate, sensitive, and quick method of detergency evaluation. The results from the measurement of dimensional changes were less defined. In general, the dimensional change was dependent upon the type of fabric being evaluated. More change occurred in the knitted fabrics than in the woven; the bulky knit was particularly susceptible. Of the woven fabrics, the twill weave unfinished fabric had the least resistance to dimensional change. In most instances, the addition of the shrinkage resistant finish effected a slight reduction in dimensional change. There was little relationship between the type of detergent and the amount of dimensional change in the woven fabrics; however, a slight relationship of one cold water detergent to change in dimension of knitted fabrics was found. The relation of increase in temperature to dimensional change was erratic for the woven fabrics. There was a direct relationship between temperature and dimensional change in the bulky knit when cold water detergents were used. It was felt that much more extensive research must be conducted before a specific conclusion may be made regarding the optimum detergent and temperature for the laundering of wool.
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