Comparison of certain sulfonamide drugs for treatment of bacterial infections of Pacific salmon Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/k643b359v

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  • Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding sulfamethazine to chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha, Walbaum) as it is used in the Oregon Moist Pellet diet (OMP) for control of bacterial infections and to compare this drug with sulfisoxazole and sulfadimethoxine. These drugs were compared in the following manner: toxicity, absorption and elimination from the blood, effects on growth of the fish, bacteriostatic activity, and therapeutic effectiveness. In certain experiments sulfaethoxypyridazine was also included for comparison. Experimental results showed that the OMP diet required about one-half the amount of sulfamethazine as a fish-meat diet to attain an equivalent blood concentration. The addition of sodium bicarbonate did not influence the absorption rate or conclusively reduce the toxic complications. Reduced growth when observed was attributed to the reluctancy of the fish to eat the medicated diets. Diets medicated with sulfisoxazole were tolerated best followed by those containing sulfamethazine and sulfadimethoxine respectively. Sulfisoxazole showed growth stimulating properties when administered at 5 and 10 gm per 100 pounds of fish per day. Acute toxicity symptoms were not induced due to the refusal of fish to eat the more highly medicated diets, but deaths due to a secondary superficial growth of fungi was associated with the use of all drugs. Sulfisoxazole caused the least number of deaths when administered at 5 gm per 100 pounds of fish per day followed by sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine respectively. Peak blood concentrations were attained within 12 hours of the initial dose with sulfisoxazole and sulfadimethoxine, while two to four days were required with sulfamethazine under similar conditions. Sulfisoxazole was also eliminated most rapidly frorn the blood, followed by sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine. In Vitro sensitivity tests against isolates of "cold water" disease (Cytophaga psychrophila) and furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida) showed sulfisoxazole to be the most active and sulfamethazine the least. Sensitivity test performed with either autoclaved or filter sterilized media containing drugs gave comparable results. Treatment of furunculosis in five month old coho salmon (Oncorhyncus kisutch, Walbaum) in production trials indicated sulfamethazine gave adequate control when administered at 5 gm per 100 pounds of fish per day for ten days. It was also shown that the loss of coho salmon due to "cold water" disease could be significantly reduced by treatment with sulfisoxazole, sulfaethoxypyridazirte, or sulfamethazine. A continuous prophylactic treatment with 4 gm of drug per 100 pounds of fish per day in the fish-meat diet was shown to be an effective method of controlling "cold water" disease.
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