The application of American highway standards to highways in Turkey Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/kd17cw70f

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  • Turkey is an agricultural country where exchange and shipping of goods has been gravely hampered in the past by lack of highways. The railroads have large expanses of land between them, and highway construction in the past has been limited to strategic roads and connections of cities to railways. Unless capital changes occur in the balance of the country's foreign trade, non-military motor vehicles cannot be expected to surpass greatly the 60,000 figure. On this basis, most of the recently designated National System highways will not earn in user taxes the yearly cost accruing against them from capital investment and maintenance charges. The problem confronting the Turkish General Directorate of Highways is done consequently one one or designing roads that fro the lowest capital investment will reduce trucking costs to a level that will encourage farm production and distribution of consumer goods throughout the country. The design speeds that have been arrived at in this thesis are 60-70 m.p.h. on flat terrain, 50-60 m.p.h. on rolling country, and in mountainous areas 40 m.p.h., dropping to 30 and 25 m.p.h. on short sections through mountainous terrain. Capital investment can also be reduced in parts of the country where base material is scarce by temporarily providing roads with a thickness of 4 to 6 inches of gravel-sand-clay mix, whose failures under traffic can be repaired in the process of maintenance by motor blades. American practice, interpreted with an eye to the greater average age of motor vehicles in Turkey, indicates that maximum grades should be limited to 6% with 7% used on short sections of very mountainous terrain. Bridge work requires now that maintenance cost and economic life data be obtained for various types of structures before an economic breakdown can be used to determine the type of bridge-building materials most economical in each climatological region of the country. The traffic contemplated by 1970 does not justify grade separation structures on rural highways. Such structures, however, will be needed at railroad crossings, and the beginning made toward their construction must be followed by increased work in that direction. Before grade intersections of highways can be designed to facilitate the movement of traffic, a highway police must be created and given a Traffic Law to apply.
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