Cardiovascular and respiratory responses of the ghost shrimp, Callianassa californiensis Dana, to the pesticide carbaryl and its hydrolytic product 1-naphthol Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/kh04ds07x

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  • Many environmental factors influence cardiovascular and respiratory activities of crustaceans. The effects of natural stressors (hypoxia, low salinity, high temperature) have been well studied, but the effects of pollutants upon these two organ systems have received less attention. The presence of the pesticide carbaryl (Sevin, Union Carbide, Inc.) and its degradation product, 1-naphthol, in Northwestern rivers and bays has resulted from intentional application to commercial oyster beds and through careless handling during other spraying operations. In this study, the burrowing thalassinid ghost shrimp, Callianassa californiensis was exposed to sublethal levels of the two toxicants to assess their influence on the cardiovascular and respiratory performance of these tidal mudflat dwellers. Both carbaryl and 1-naphthol altered the behavior of exposed ghost shrimp, causing hyperactivity, convulsions and paralysis. During these changes oxygen consumption was increased two-fold. In carbaryl-treated ghost shrimp, normally occurring periods of apnea were abolished and replaced with high frequency scaphognathite beating. The heart rate, however, was not substantially increased. Once carbaryl treatment was discontinued, scaphognathite rates declined and heart rates became elevated. During 1-naphthol exposure, neither heart nor scaphognathite activities were consistently altered. Both toxicants stimulated the secretion of mucosubstances by the shrimp, however, the source of these secretions is not known. The responses of ghost shrimp to carbaryl and 1-naphthol may be due, in part, to the ability of these compounds to reversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme which degrades acetylcholine at cholinergic nerve synapses. Although the exact mode of action of these two toxicants in ghost shrimp is not known, it is clear that any substance which would alter their behavior and increase their metabolic demands might seriously affect the ability of the ghost shrimp to survive in the hypoxic mudflat environment.
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