Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Continuous-flow and batch column studies of anaerobic carbon tetrachloride biotransformation on Hanford soil Public Deposited

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  • Continuous-flow and batch experiments were conducted with a column reactor system containing Hanford aquifer material in order to evaluate the potential of in-situ bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) at Hanford. The effectiveness of benzoate and acetate as primary substrates was considered. Nitrate and sulfate were potential electron acceptors. Transport experiments indicated the following characteristics: porosity, 27%; longitudinal dispersivity, 11 cm; and CT retardation factor, 3.9. Denitrification and CT transformation occurred during periods of benzoate and acetate addition. Chloroform (CF) was detected as a product of CT transformation in all cases. Benzoate generally induced the fastest rates of CT transformation. However, acetate was much better at inducing denitrification. Sulfate reduction was never observed, even during extended absences of nitrate and nitrite. The continuous-flow experiments showed more rapid transformation near the point of injection; however, residence times were not long enough to completely degrade CT. In batch experiments CT transformation appeared to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rates decreasing from the point of injection. Switching from continuous-flow to batch experiments appeared to be an effective means of determining spatial differences in microbial activity within the column. Overall, these results indicate that the microbial population at Hanford is capable of transforming CT in the subsurface. However, methods to control the production of CF may be necessary before this technology can be successfully employed.
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