Ecotypic adaptation of Setaria lutescens (Weigel) F. T. Hubbard to alfalfa culture in California Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/m039k840q

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  • Setaria lutescens (yellow foxtail) plants, grown from five seed sources were compared in California. Seed sources were: Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and California. Morphological and physiological differences between biotypes include: plant size, growth habit, time required to mature and reproductive capa city. Most significant is the prostrate habit of the California biotype. Biotype seed studies also indicate differences in dormancy and requirements for seed germination. After-ripening, stratification and temperature are implicated. Growth and reproductive capacity of Connecticut, Pennsylvania and California Setaria lutescens biotypes are compared. Biotypes were grown with and without alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under California alfalfa forage production methods. The California biotype of Setaria lutescens yielded 85% more seed than Connecticut and 71% more than Pennsylvania when clipped monthly to a height of 7.6 cm. When grown with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and harvested monthly, the California biotype produced 98% more seed than Connecticut and 93% more than the Pennsylvania biotype. First-year forage yield of alfalfa was reduced 35% and the plant density of alfalfa reduced 48% when grown with California Setaria lutescens. Growth and reproductive capacity of Echinochloa crusgalli and Setaria lutescens were compared when grown with and without alfalfa under California forage production methods. When the two grass species were grown together at densities of 2300 plants /m² Setaria lutescens produced mature seed while Echinochloa crusgalli failed to reproduce. Echinochloa crusgalli plant density and seed production was reduced by second-year alfalfa. Setaria lutescens density was reduced but seed production averaged 10,000 seeds/m². Dry matter yields of first-year alfalfa and plant density of first- and second-year alfalfa were reduced when grown with Setaria lutescens. Field studies of Echinochloa crusgalli and Setaria lutescens growing in commercially cultivated alfalfa were conducted. Transects of alfalfa strip checks showed field densities of Echinochloa crusgalli and Setaria lutescens to be largely dependent on the cultural practice of curing alfalfa forage in windrows.
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