Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an attractive building material because it is renewable, promotes fast installation, and possesses a high strength-to-weight ratio. The use of CLT in seismic applications has become increasingly common with the development of post-tensioned CLT rocking wall lateral force resisting systems (LFRS). The CLT pier-and-spandrel system designed, tested, and modeled in this research is composed of CLT panels, threaded rods, steel shear-key plates, and yield-link moment connections. This design is intended for the seismic retrofit of historic mixed-use unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings.
The in-plane behavior of the pier-and-spandrel system was tested at Oregon State University (OSU) using a displacement-controlled quasi-static reverse-cyclic loading procedure. Loads were applied at the roof-level and second floor-level spandrels. The system, designed for 1% drift, experienced a maximum drift of approximately 2%. The CLT panels and threaded rods experienced no visible deformation during the test. The system provided adequate energy dissipation capacity. A numerical model of the pier-and-spandrel system was developed using OpenSeesPy and calibrated using results from the experimental test.