Performance of five winter wheat cultivars when grown in composite and pure stand populations under different environmental stresses Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/m613n133k

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  • Five genetically and morphologically different winter wheat cultivars, Hyslop (H), Yamhill (Y), Paha (P), Luke (L), and Sprague (5) were blended in all possible combinations. These composites plus the five pure stands were planted in the fall of 1973 at three environmentally diverse locations in Oregon: Hyslop Agronomy Farm, Corvallis; Central Oregon Experiment Station, Madras; and Sherman Experiment Station, Moro. A triple lattice design was selected be cause of the large number of treatments with five filler cultivars added to balance the experiment. Eight traits, yield per plot, number of plants per plot, number of tillers per plot, number of heads per plant, yield per plant, number of kernels per head, 1000 kernel weight and plant height, were measured for each treatment. General and relative competitive ability of the cultivars in composite combinations and yield of pure stands were determined and ranked for all locations. Specific competitive ability was determined for all composite treatments. General and specific competitive ability were defined as the grain yield of the component lines across all composite combinations and within single treatments, respectively. Relative competitive ability was defined as yield of the component lines versus its pure stand in composite combinations. The rank for general and relative competitive ability and yield of pure stands were Y>H>P>L>S, Y>P>H>L>S, and H>Y>L> S>P, respectively at Corvallis. Only Hyslop yielded significantly higher than the mean of five pure stands. However, Yamhill was superior for general and relative competitive ability at this location. The rank of the component lines for general and relative competitive ability was the same at Madras (P>Y>H>S>L). But the yield rank of pure stands was different (L>H>Y>P>S). Luke and the composites, H+L+S, H+L, and H+Y+P yielded significantly higher than the mean of the five pure stands. General and relative competitive ability of cultivars when grown at Moro was Y>H>P>L>S and H>Y>P>L>S, respectively. The rank for yield for pure stands was Y>H>L>P>S. Yamhill was superior for general competitive ability and as a pure stand. However, Hyslop was superior for relative competitive ability. Pure stand Yamhill, H+L and H+Y combinations yielded significantly higher than the mean of the five pure stands. The cultivars had the same rank for general competitive ability at Corvallis and Moro. Significant differences were not found between treatments for yield in a combined analysis of variance. Analysis of variance indicated that treatments responded the same for all traits across all locations. Paha was very susceptible (80 percent) to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) at Corvallis in 1974. Hyslop was resistant with the other cultivars having a lower percentage of disease than Paha. The 15 composite combinations containing Paha had between 20 and 50 percent leaf rust. The yield of 14 out of 15 composite combinations exceeded that of pure stand Paha. The mean infection of the five pure stands was higher than the mean infection of those composite combinations containing Paha. Composites composed of lines with different sources of resistance to leaf rust reduced the overall amount of disease. Composite populations were superior under stress or medium stress conditions whereas varieties per se were superior under ideal growing conditions. However the performance of a cultivar under pure stand conditions in a given environment is not a direct measure of its yielding ability in a composite. Therefore it will be necessary to test various composite combinations in different locations for several years before recommending a specific composite for commercial production.
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