|Abstract or Summary
- The present study was a modified replication of the two pioneer
works in the field of sport and ethnic groups by Pooley (1968)
and Tindall (1973). This study investigated whether participation in
an ethnic basketball league in Japanese-American communities affected
the rate of assimilation of two groups of Japanese-American, high-school
aged males. Test instruments consisted of a written questionnaire,
direct observations, and formal and informal focused
interviews. The data collection was conducted by the researcher
in the San Francisco Bay Area, California between December 26, 1982
and March 22, 1983.
The participant group consisted of fifty, 15-18 year old,
Japanese-American male participants in the East Bay Youth Athletic
League (EBYAL) during 1982-83. The non-participant group was comprised
of thirty-six, 15-18 year old, Japanese-American males who
never participated in the EBYAL. All subjects were volunteers.
The questionnaire, based on Tindall's instrument, was
designed to measure six dimensions of assimilation of members of
the two groups. Additional data on the participants in EBYAL
regarding the six assimilation dimensions were obtained using
formal interviews with team representatives, coaches, league executives,
and randomly selected participants. In order to assess
the rate of assimilation and the social, psychological, and cultural
attributes of the participants, direct observations and
informal focused interviews were conducted with the people involved
in the EBYAL.
The questionnaire was distributed to participants and nonparticipants.
The return rate of the questionnaire was 80.2%,
One main hypothesis and several sub-hypotheses were formulated.
The hypotheses were tested using a one-tailed Student's
t-test and/or a one-tailed chi-square test. Significance was
sought at the .05 level of confidence for all hypotheses.
The results of this study indicated that participation in the
EBYAL did not appear to promote overall assimilation of its members
into the mainstream of American life. Participation in ethnic sport
clubs seemed to be an index of ethnic solidarity rather than a causal
factor influencing the assimilation processes of this Japanese-
American sample. The present study also found that complete acculturation
has not taken place among the Yonsei, the fourth generation