- The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the relationships between work and family domain characteristics, time-based work-family conflict (WFC), and turnover intention of agriculture teachers. This study sought to identify factors influencing agriculture teachers' turnover intentions. An additional focus of this study was to explore differences between male and female agriculture teachers regarding the variables of interest. Data were collected from a simple random sample of secondary agriculture teachers across the U.S. who self-identified as being active participants in a family role during the 2014-2015 academic year.
The survey instrument consisted of demographic questions and existing validated constructs and measures. Information about agriculture teachers' work and family domain characteristics, WFC, turnover intentions, and reasons for the likelihood of leaving teaching was gathered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics.
The majority of respondents reported being married and having children. Regarding work domain characteristics, respondents reported investing an average of 55 hours per regular work week (Monday through Friday) and 18 weekend hours per month in their agriculture teaching jobs. They also indicated a lack of congruence in work hours, as they preferred to work less hours than they currently were investing in their jobs. Agriculture teachers indicated high levels of family salience and moderate levels of work salience. Respondents also reported moderate levels of work interference with family (WIF), moderately low levels of family interference with work (FIW), and moderately low levels of turnover intentions. No differences in salience, conflict, or turnover intentions by sex were found. Agriculture teachers reported the highest likelihood of leaving their teaching position; 1) for a more desirable job opportunity, 2) for an opportunity to move up in their career, 3) because of family reasons, 4) due to a lack of compensation for the amount of work done, and 5) because of excessive workload. Females were more likely than males to leave teaching for "parenthood responsibilities/rearing children" and "because it is incompatible with raising a family."
Perceived family-supportive work culture, number of agriculture teachers per school, work salience, and actual work hours per work week were significant factors in predicting WIF among agriculture teachers. Family salience was the only significant factor in predicting FIW among agriculture teachers. Additionally, age of child, work hours per work week, perceived family-supportive work culture, and WIF were significant predictors of turnover intentions of agriculture teachers. It was concluded that the conflict from trying to balance work and family role responsibilities does influence agriculture teachers' turnover intentions, and this conflict originates primarily in the work domain, not the family domain. Implications and recommendations for the agricultural education profession and for research are discussed.