Possible compensations of the components of grain yeild in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influenced by genotype by environment interactions Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/mp48sh16g

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  • Despite many investigations genotype by environment interaction remains one of the least understood factors in plant improvement. Understanding genotypic differences responsible for such interactions could assist in making more informed breeding decisions. The components of yield being less complex than grain yield per se may be useful for selection to improve adaptation of genotypes and enhance grain quality. However, the potential compensatory response among the components of yield could compromise their usefulness as selection criteria. To evaluate this aspect fifteen cultivars, including Soft White, Hard White and Hard Red wheats, were planted at three diverse locations over two growing seasons. Genotypes were ranked based on measurements for specific traits in each environment. The genotype by environment interaction for grain yield, protein concentration and hardness were investigated according to the AMMI model. Influence of environmental factors and genotype by environment interactions on associations among selected traits were determined. The results of this study showed that genotypic differences in adaptation to the Pacific Northwest and resistance to Septoria spp. were responsible for interactions for grain yield. However, no consistent patterns of response were found among the similar cultivars for quality traits. Those environments that favored expression of biomass and grain weight potential provided for enhanced performance of the adapted cultivars. The environments with suppressed biomass accumulation and grain filling interacted positively with the unadapted cultivars. A large compensatory relationship between tillering and apical growth was detected. No or low compensation was observed between grains per spike and thousand kernel weight. Two different strategies were proposed for improvement of Soft and Hard White wheat cultivars under the conditions of the Pacific Northwest. Both strategies accentuate importance of increasing biomass while maintaining harvest index. When selecting for higher yielding Soft White cultivars, plants with larger leaves, stronger stems, larger spikes and heavier grains should be emphasized. For Hard Whites - higher number of tillers and grains m⁻² is desired, as they provide for harder grains with higher protein content.
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