Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Predictors and Outcomes of Physical Activity for Young Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder Public Deposited

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https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/mw22v925x

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  • The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion released the Healthy People 2020 plan in 2010 (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion [ODPHP], 2010). The mission of Healthy People 2020 is focused on improving the health of all Americans. One common tool utilized to improve the health of Americans is physical activity (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011b). However, many young adults, including individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), engage in low amounts of physical activity (Haskell et al., 2007) and often struggle to achieve an optimal health status (Park, Mulye, Adams, Brindis, & Irwin, 2006). Therefore, more successful health promotion efforts are needed. In order to achieve this goal two separate studies were conducted to help understand the mechanism of how to promote physical activity and the role of physical activity within health outcomes for young adults with and without ASD. The first study (Chapter 2) cross-validated the self-determination theory for physical activity among young adults with ASD. One-hundred and forty-three young adults with ASD completed a questionnaire pertaining to their basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), self-determined motivation, and physical activity level. Results from a path analysis revealed an overall adequate model fit (x² (3, N = 143) = 11.99, p = .007, GFI = .97, NFI = .95, CFI =. 96, RMSEA = .15) concerning the self-determination theory for young adults with ASD. The second study (Chapter 3) reported the influence of physical activity and ASD on the multiple domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for young adults. Three-hundred and twenty participants, including young adults with ASD, completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activity level and HRQOL. Results from five separate multiple regressions, based on bias-corrected bootstrapping, suggested that physical activity levels significantly predicted overall HRQOL (b = .04; CI = .02, .06), and the four domains, including physical health (b = .007; CI= .002, .01), psychological (b = .01; CI= .01, .02), environment (b = .01; CI = .002, .02), and social relationships (b = .01; CI = .00, .02). Additionally, after controlling for physical activity and an individual’s sex, status of (having) ASD significantly influenced overall HRQOL (b = -7.28; CI = -9.82, -4.70), as well as the physical health domain (b = -2.68; CI = -3.39, -1.98), psychological domain (b = -2.04; CI = -2.81, -1.33, and the environment domain (b = -1.86; CI = -2.51, -1.21). This research supports the importance of physical activity to positively influence HRQOL. Also, results suggest that the self-determination theory is one appropriate conceptual model that practitioners could utilize to increase physical activity among young adults with ASD. Although this research helps to clarify the predictors and outcomes of physical activity for young adults, further research is needed. Future research should focus on examining specific strategies to improve the perceptions of the basic psychological needs for young adults with ASD. Additionally, researchers could investigate how the physical activity setting (e.g., team sports) influences an individual’s HRQOL.
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  • 2017-08-22 to 2018-07-15

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