Broadband modeling of on-chip transformers for silicon RFICs Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/n009w472f

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  • Magnetically coupled passive transformers are increasingly integrated on-chip for various analog and radio frequency (RF) applications including direct current (DC) isolation, impedance transformation/matching, and conversion between single-ended and differential signals. A primary motivation for the on-chip integration of transformers is the overall size reduction and reduced cost. However, the performance of on-chip transformers is adversely affected by increased losses in the conductors and silicon substrate as well as limited values of achievable inductance, coupling coefficient and quality factor. Consequently, accurate, broadband transformer models compatible with transient circuit simulation are needed for analog and RF integrated circuit design. This thesis presents a new two-step methodology for automated broadband model generation for monolithic transformers integrated on silicon substrates. First, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) in single or multi-PI topology is extracted from available four-port scattering parameters obtained by electromagnetic full-wave simulation or measurement. To further enhance the broadband characteristics of the extracted ECM, an automated augmentation method based on linear least squares fitting is adapted. The new augmentation procedure adds physically motivated circuit elements to the ECM resulting in a guaranteed stable and passive circuit model with improved accuracy over a broad frequency range. The modeling algorithm has been implemented in a MATLAB code. A typical SPECTRE model extraction over the frequency range of 0.1-10 GHz takes less than 4 minutes on an Intel-based 2.13 GHz Xeon computer. The new extraction approach is validated for a variety of transformer configurations built on standard BiCMOS and CMOS processes with stacked and interleaved topologies, different shapes, and various turns ratios, sizes and process parameters. The extracted models show good agreement over a broad frequency range with the corresponding measurement data obtained by 3-D full wave electromagnetic simulation.
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