The use of honey bees to pollinate apple orchards seems natural, even inevitable. This dissertation examines the relationship of beekeeping and apple growing in Hood River, Oregon in the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries, as a case study in the development of commercial pollination service. Within this time period the values of the progressive era, changing technologies, and expanding infrastructure shaped the possibilities that were available to beekeepers and apple growers. Additionally, I explore the role of science in decision-making and policy creation by Oregon beekeepers and apple growers as they each focus on personal success. As this dissertation reveals, the relationship between honey bees and apple trees is not as simple as you might think.