Enhancement of biological control for postharvest diseases of pear Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/nc580p67j

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  • Yeast biocontrol agents that were applied to 'Bose' and 'Anjou' pears in the field up to three weeks prior to harvest were found to survive on the fruit at high population levels on both pear varieties. Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatus, Cryptococcus laurentii, and Rhodotorula glutinis maintained populations averaging 5 x 10⁶ cfu/fruit for three weeks. Candida oleophila had high initial populations, but the population size quickly declined to levels similar to the total yeast populations on untreated fruit. After a storage period of 2-4 months, fruit that were treated with C. infirmo-miniatus three weeks before harvest showed significantly lower incidence of decay at wounds than did untreated fruit. Combinations of biocontrol agents with reduced rates of the postharvest fungicides captan and thiabendazole were effective in reducing incidence and severity of blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum on 'Bosc' pears. Calcium chloride was also effective in combination with some biocontrol agents. Chitosan caused reductions in decay when used alone, but not when combined with most biocontrol agents. The compounds L-asparagine, L-proline, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose were not consistently effective either alone or combined with biocontrol agents. Storage of 'Bosc' and 'Anjou' pears in atmospheres with carbon dioxide concentrations of 12% or 20% for up to six weeks significantly reduced incidence and severity of gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea, but decay was not reduced when the atmospheres was only 3% CO₂. In contrast, the 12% or 20% CO₂ atmospheres did not have significant effects on decay caused by P. expansum. Use of the biocontrol agents C. infirmo-miniatus, C. laurentii, or R. glutinis led to reductions in decay in all atmospheres, with C. infirmo-miniatus being the most consistently effective. The biocontrol products BioSave-110 (EcoScience Corp.) and Aspire (Ecogen Corp.) were less effective than the yeasts C. laurentii, R. glutinis, and C. infirmo-miniatus which were grown in the lab.
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