Formulation of a synthetic seawater for bioassays with Mytilus edulis embryos Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/np193c358

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  • Commerical preparations and published formulations using reagent chemicals for seawater substitutes were not biologically acceptable to Mytilus edulis embryos, in that calcification did not occur. When Leslie coarse hide salt was used as the source of NaCl for literature formulations, most formulas provided some success in the development, growth and calcification of mussel embryos. By varying concentrations of several anions and cations, and using Leslie coarse hide salt, a new formula (BioSea) was developed which would allow normal growth and development to the shelled veliger stage. Essential inorganic compounds for M. edulis development are NaCl; NaHCO₃, KCl, anhydrous MgSO₄ and CaCl₂. The Leslie coarse hide salt (NaC1) used in BioSea contains an essential compound or compounds (L factor), thought to be organic, necessary for calcification of mus sel larvae. This factor is destroyed upon burning of the salt. Seawater contains 4 times as much of the essential L factor as BioSea. A solution of 2O% real seawater, with the salinity adjusted to 25 ppt using reagent NaCl will provide all necessary compounds for normal development of M. edulis. Growth and development of Myilus was improved by adding alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, purine (free base), DL lysine and DL aspartic acid to BioSea. Abnormal larvae could often be related to specific substances or specific procedures. Nine abnormalities of frequent occurrence were described. These included hollow embryos, ear muff, black spot and exploded types, levorotory spin, malformed trochophores, trocophores without flagella and larvae with extrusion of viscera. Results of mussel bioas says with Kraft mill effluents in BioSea were equivalent to those using natural seawater. It is suggested that BioSea be used as standard media for bioassays of marine waters. Additional research is strongly recommended towards identifying the L factor (Leslie Coarse hide salt factor) which is necesdary for calcification of shellfish larvae.
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