Life history and evolutionary adaptation of Pacific salmon and its application in management Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/p2676x65v

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  • An approach to understanding and managing anadromous salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) based on life history and evolutionary adaptive capacities of species and stocks is presented. Species, stocks, and local populations are viewed as systems that are continuously adapting to changing environmental conditions. They have the potential capacity to evolve in different ways in different environments through both life history and evolutionary adaptation. Habitat organization forms a template for genus, species, stock, and local population life history organization. Harvesting, habitat alteration resulting from land use practices and other human activities can alter the organization and adaptive capacities of species and stocks, and thus their long term persistence. The adaptive capacity of Oncorhynchus relative to its habitat and management environment is examined at the species, stock, and local population levels. Life history characteristics of representative stocks and local populations are analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA). Fresh water migration distance and latitude are used to "explain" ordination patterns of Oncorhynchus species in the North Pacific Basin. Fresh water migration difficulty and mean annual runoff are used to interpret life history patterns of Columbia Basin chinook salmon stocks. Upstream migration difficulty and fall water temperatures are used to explain the ordination patterns of local populations of Willamette spring chinook salmon. Fishery management practices are examined in terms of their impacts on the organization and adaptive capacity of species, stocks, and local populations of Oncorhynchus. Management generalizations and guidelines derived from the life history theory are applied to management of Willamette spring chinook salmon. Maintaining habitat changes in the Willamette Basin within the historic range of fluctuations will tend to maximize co-organization of local populations. Management activities should provide relatively constant habitat and fishery conditions for natural selection processes to "organize" life history traits over a period of at least a few generations. Fisheries should selectively harvest local populations that show a high degree of realization of their adaptive capacity. By focusing instead on maximizing the co-organization of stocks, their habitat and fishery environments, and protecting the adaptive capacities of stocks, we will go a long way toward providing long-term sustainability for social communities dependent on fisheries.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-12-12T20:28:51Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 WeversMaryJo1994.pdf: 6247632 bytes, checksum: 7b76404505330dca6e8ed9dcf6cfc26c (MD5)
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