Development of a grid-scale energy storage solution via demand response using model predictive control of multiple residential water heaters Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/p2676x69z

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  • As the growth of renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, and ocean wave, increases, their impact on the electrical grid has been rapidly escalating. Although renewable resources have been able to offset some traditional generation, they have also brought a need for increasing reserve capacity due to their non-dispatchable, variable nature. While there are a variety of possible solutions to this issue including reduced dispatch windows and more accurate forecasting, one proposed solution is the use of grid-scale energy storage. Unfortunately, most grid-scale storage solutions are either too expensive or suffer from geographical limitations. One alternative, however, is the implementation of demand response: the use of many distributed energy storage resources, such as the millions of residentially-installed electric water heaters in the Pacific Northwest. This research presents the development of a control methodology to combine multiple residential water heaters into a larger grid-scale storage resource while still satisfying the needs of consumers. Results demonstrate the ability of this control scheme, model predictive control, to make decisions based on predicted inputs to provide a balancing service for renewable energy resources, furthering the goal of increasing their penetration onto the grid.
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