Time and energy budgets of a population of dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) during winter in the Cascade Range of Oregon Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/p2676z81f

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  • A time and energy budget was constructed for a population of dippers (Cinclus Mexicanus) in the Cascade Range of Oregon during winter. A total of 12,202 point observations of activity were made from nine observation blinds from 19 November 1973 to 10 February 1974. Approximately 50 percent of all observations were of foraging activity and no significant differences were observed between morning and afternoon activity patterns. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated significant negative correlations between time spent foraging and mean temperature during the active day (P < 0.01), mean temperature of the previous night (P < 0.05), and mean temperature of the 24-hour period (P < 0.05). Exploratory behavior was negatively correlated to mean temperature during the active day (P < 0.01); however, in the regression equation, this relationship was masked by the strong negative correlation between exploratory behavior and foraging. Passive behavior was inversely related to foraging and directly related to the length of the photoperiod (P < 0.01). Estimates of rates of energy consumption of 3.4, 3.0, and 1.2 times the resting metabolic rate were determined for foraging, exploratory behavior, and passive behavior respectively. Nighttime metabolic activity was assumed to be equivalent to the standard metabolic rate. Daily energy requirements for foraging, exploratory behavior, passive behavior, and nighttime activity were estimated to be 15.2, 7.7, 2.1, and 8.5 kcal/ bird day, respectively, for the average day during the study. The caloric equivalent of food consumed was estimated to be 47.9 kcal/ bird day. The population of dippers on the 5.5 km of stream investigated ingested an estimated 51,207 kcal from 15 November to 15 February.
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