Comparative nutrient intake and biochemical interrelationships among healthy vegetarian and nonvegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, nonvegetarians, and hormone dependent cancer subjects Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/p5547t564

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  • The purposes of the research presented in this thesis were to: (l) assess the nutritional status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian Seventh-day Adventists (SDA), non-SDA non-vegetarians, and non-vegetarian hormone dependent cancer subjects; (2) determine the relationship of various blood and urinary biochemical parameters to dietary intake; (3) determine hormonal status in these populations; (4) correlate hormonal status with nutrient intake; and (5) suggest alterations in the diet which may deter the incidence of breast cancer. Adult males and females were recruited from the Corvallis area, and the group was comprised of 51 SDA vegetarians (SV), 16 SDA non-vegetarians (SNV), 53 non-vegetarians (NV), and 18 hormone dependent cancer subjects (HDCS). A fasting blood sample, 24-hour urine collection, and 3-day dietary intake information were obtained from each subject. The nutrient intake parameters measured were: food energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, ascorbic acid, saturated fat, linoleic and oleic acids, and cholesterol. The blood and urine parameters measured were: plasma estrone, estradiol, estriol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cholesterol, triglyceride, pyridoxal phosphate, and whole blood selenium; urinary urea nitrogen, 4- pyridoxic acid, vitamin B-6, and creatinine. Three-day diet records were analyzed from a computerized nutrient data base. High levels of protein, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamin, and riboflavin were consumed by males and females alike. Similar levels of vitamin A and linoleic acid were consumed by all groups. Overall, the SV were consuming significantly more carbohydrate, thiamin and ascorbic acid than non-vegetarian groups; while, the non-vegetarians were consuming significantly more energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, oleic acid, cholesterol, calcium, riboflavin, and niacin than SV. In 2$% and 26% of all women, iron and vitamin B-6 intakes were below two-thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Approximately 50% of the SDA population consume vegetarian diets, which may contain higher amounts of fiber than NV diets and may adversely affect their vitamin B-6 (B-6) and selenium (Se) status. Groups of male and female SV, SNV, NV, and HDCS were subdivided into vitamin users and non-users for B-6 comparisons. Plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) was determined by an enzymatic method. Urinary B-6 (UB6), 4-pyridoxic acid (4PA) and whole blood Se were determined by microbiological and fluorometric methods. No significant differences were found for PLP, 4PA, UB6, dietary B-6 (DB6), B-6:protein ratios, or % of DB6 intake excreted as 4PA between male or female SV, SNV, and NV groups. Male PLP, 4PA, UB6 and DB6 intake mean values were higher than female levels. Hormone dependent cancer subjects currently receiving chemotherapy had significantly lower PLP levels than non-therapeutic HDCS. An extensive evaluation of the interrelationships among urine and blood B-6 metabolites was done to assess B-6 nutritional status. Vitamin B-6 status of SV, SNV, and NV did not differ. Selenium levels of the SV, SNV, NV, and HDCS were low and well below values reported elsewhere in the United States, but similar in all groups. Seventh-day Adventists endocrine related cancer rates are lower than the general population. Investigation of the relationships between diet and plasma estrone (El), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and prolactin (PRL) levels for SV, SNV, NV, and HDCS was done. Also, estimation of dietary fat (F) intake from 32 F containing foods was determined from a questionnaire reflecting the dietary intakes of 14 SV and 9 NV premenopausal women during the past year. All hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The premenopausal SV were consuming approximately 25% less F than NV, and used significantly less fried foods (P [less than or equal to] 0.01). Premenopausal NV plasma levels of El and E2, but not E3, were significantly greater than that of SV (P [less than or equal to] 0.02; P [less than or equal to] 0.05). Comparisons of the other male or female SV and NV groups El, E2, E3, DHEA-S, and PRL levels were not different. Regression analysis of the questionnaire data revealed no significant positive correlations between F intake and SV or NV premenopausal levels of any of the three estrogens. However, according to regression analysis involving 3-day dietary intake averages, premenopausal SV E2 and E3 levels were positively correlated with intakes of linoleic acid and protein (P [less than or equal to] 0.05; P [less than or equal to] 0.01); also, premenopausal NV prolactin levels were correlated with intakes of oleic and linoleic acids, and total fat (P [less than or equal to] 0.005; P [less than or equal to] 0.02; P [less than or equal to] O.Ol). Therefore, based on these findings and other current evidence, it may be wise for premenopausal women to reduce meat intake and other products of high fat content.
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