Energy use coefficients for irrigation system materials Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/p5547v67v

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  • Finite, uncertain, and increasingly expensive energy resources require a better understanding of energy utilization in all sectors of the national economy including agriculture. A significant portion of energy used in agriculture is required for the manufacturing, installation, transporting, and operation of irrigation systems. Quantification of the amounts of energy used in these operations for various types of irrigation systems is necessary for planners in agricultural production, water resources, and energy conservation fields to determine the optimum system under varying regional resource constraints. Systems which were built in the former days of abundant and relatively inexpensive electrical energy may not be very efficient by today's standards. Decisions to expand or update these systems or to develop entirely new systems require energy utilization information as a basis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the manufacturing energy required for the following material groups used in irrigation systems: 1. Aluminum 2. Steel 3. Cooper, zinc, and brass 4. Low- and high-density polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride 5. Portland cement, asbestos-cement, and concrete There are primarily two methods of computing energy use coefficients: (1) the process analysis approach and (2) the input-output method. In the process analysis approach, delineation of each material production stage, beginning with natural resource extraction through final fabrication, is required. Analysis using the input-output method is based on energy flows corresponding to dollar flows between various sectors of the national economy. The energy consumption for a specific process can be calculated by know ing or estimating its cost and the breakdown of that cost into associated economic sectors. It was decided that the process analysis approach would be used. This method appeared to be more straightforward since each process step and its energy use associated with it must be specified.
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