Improvement of barley utilization through feed processing or supplementation Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/pc289n55t

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  • Methods to improve the efficacy of swine barley rations were evaluated. A literature review pertaining to the subject, three feeding trials involving 104 swine, and a laboratory investigation were used in the study. The effects of pelleting with a new modified pellet die that produces a dense pellet; supplementation with 5 percent stabilized beef tallow or with a cellulase preparation¹; adding water to the ration at the time of feeding; soaking the ration 9 to 15 hours prior to feeding; the use of temperature control with mash rations, and several interactions of these methods have been evaluated. Pelleting barley rations significantly (P < .01) improved the feed conversion over similar rations fed as meal, but had no significant (P > .10) effect on daily feed consumption or average daily gains. Meal rations were 7 percent bulkier than pellets, and it is suggested that the increased density of pellets is responsible for the improvement in feed conversion due to pelleting. Fat supplementation was additive with pelleting when the modified pellet die was used; together the two significantly (P < .05) improved the feed conversion of the control ration. Supplementation with 5 percent stabilized beef tallow brought about no significant (P > .05) changes in average daily gains, feed consumption, or feed conversion. However, fat supplementation tended to improve the utilization of barley rations more than pelleting or cellulase supplementation. Fat additions apparently lowered cellulase activity as determined in vitro, but fat apparently was not detrimental to cellulase activity in vivo except in pelleted rations. Cellulase 4000 did not bring about any significant (P > .10) changes in average daily gains, feed consumption or feed efficiency although there was a slight but consistently favorable trend to do so. Carcass shrinkage was significantly (P < .05) lower following cellulase feeding, whether the ration was soaked or dry. Backfat was significantly (P < .05) thicker on soaked rations, but not on dry rations, when Cellulase 4000 was supplemented. The use of this enzyme apparently increases the average daily gains but not the feed efficiency of soaked rations, at least in the absence of temperature control. Soaking the ration 9 to 15 hours prior to feeding or simply wetting the ration at the time of feeding tended to increase the average daily gains and feed consumption, but lowered the efficiency of feed utilization. When temperature control was applied to the mash rations, average daily gains were significantly (P < . 05) improved over the controls, shrinkage losses apparently increased (P < .05 with the "soaked" group), but the feed efficiency tended to decrease as did the backfat thickness and the iodine numbers of the backfat (P < .05 with the "soaked" group). The laboratory study provided some evidence that Cellulase 4000 brought about reduction in cellulose, but that the pH of barley rations was not optimum for cellulase activity. Reducing sugars and crude fiber were found to increase with the ration soaking time. ¹ Cellulase 4000, supplied gratis by Miles Laboratories, Elkhart, Indiana.
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