- The purpose of this study was to locate and analyze experimental
studies of teacher training that tested elements of Bandura's
social learning theory. Bandura's theory emphasizes the role of
modeling in the acquisition of new modes of interpersonal behavior,
and it also provides for the integration of practice and feedback in
training sequences. Since these three variables were commonly
tested in research on teacher training, Bandura's theory was the
framework used for synthesizing the many findings.
The experimental studies were located by conducting four
types of searches:
1. a computer search of the Research in Education and
Current Index to Journals in Education files; 2. a systematic search of 1.9 prominent educational
3. a computer search of the files at Xerox University
Microfilms for doctoral dissertations;
4. and a search of books on teacher education, teacher
training, and teacher behaviors at five university
Experimental studies were defined as those including: some
form of modeling, specific teaching behaviors as the dependent
variable, detailed training procedures, an observation system, a
true experimental design, and inferential statistics. The 56 studies
that met these limitations were carefully examined, and 43 different
kinds of information were recorded for each. Then, a cross-tabulation
analysis was made for 27 major treatments and 75 teaching
behaviors. From this analysis, two-dimensional matrices were
prepared to illustrate the particular comparisons of treatment and
teaching behavior for each finding. The findings in each cell of a
matrix were then examined for replications, effective training procedures,
and support for assumptions of Bandura's theory.
The following major conclusions were drawn from the analysis
of 476 findings:
1. Most of the findings showed that modeling, in general, was effective in teaching questioning skills, increasing
indirect behaviors, and decreasing most direct behaviors.
The form of modeling (written, audio, or video) was not
as important as whether the model behaviors were cued
and practice provided following the modeling.
2. The form of practice (microteaching or classroom) did not
make any difference as long as a specific model was presented
prior to practice. In fact, microteaching practice
and video feedback without modeling was less effective
than no treatment.
3. Most of the findings showed that when cued modeling and
practice were provided, feedback made no significant
difference in training teachers. The only exception was
when written matrices were provided as feedback of the
subjects' use of interaction behaviors.
4. The most effective combination for training teachers to
use questioning skills and other interaction behaviors
was a specific modeling of the behaviors with supervisory
cueing, cycled microteaching practice, and some form of
cued feedback. The use of videotape in modeling and
feedback was not essential.
5. When teachers used more higher-order questioning or more indirect interaction behaviors, their students talked
more in response to the questions and initiated more
6. All of the 15 assumptions, postulates, and propositions
of Bandura's theory that were tested, received at least
partial support from several findings, and contradictory
findings were generally small in number. This theory
was very useful in comparing findings and explaining nonsignificant