Cybersupervision of Counselors : Implications for the Enhancement of Social Presence Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/pk02cf07n

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  • The purpose of this dissertation was to add to the professional literature in counselor education and supervision through inquiry and synthesis of research among online teaching, online counseling, and online communities of practice through the supervision lens of the Discrimination Model. A unique, research-informed framework for synchronous online supervision (i.e., cybersupervision) was developed out of this research with the purpose of guiding supervisors to utilize specific strategies to mitigate technology and interpersonal barriers that interfere with social presence and the process of cybersupervision. By utilizing a research-informed framework, supervisors can optimize the conditions for counselor skill development during cybersupervision. To address the gap in current research on the impact of barriers on social presence during cybersupervision, a Likert-type survey was administered to assess the association between the level of social presence (i.e., engagement) and hindering phenomena (i.e., technology and interpersonal barriers) among counselor supervisees who experienced cybersupervision as a part of their graduate training. The survey measured supervisees’ (N = 12) social presence with the Igroup Presence Questionnaire, which included three subscales that measured spatial presence, involvement, and experienced realness. Barriers were measured using the Supervision Hindering Phenomena Survey, which included two subscales that measured pure technology barriers and interpersonal barriers. Respondents’ scores were summed and disaggregated through a split-half median process to determine the levels (i.e., low or high) of experienced barriers and social presence which were used in 2 x 2 tables to test for associations. Analysis from chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, and Fisher’s Exact tests indicated that there was an equally significant association between both experienced realness and pure technology, χ2 (1, N = 12) = .046, p < .05, φ = -.577, indicating a weak, negative correlation. Since pure technology and interpersonal barriers were indistinguishable for this sample, ancillary analysis revealed that there was a significant association between experienced realness and overall (i.e., combined pure technology and interpersonal barriers) hindering phenomena with a χ2 (1, N = 12) = .018, p < .05, φ = -.683 and a Mantel-Haenszel chi-square (1, N = 12) = .024, p < .05, φ = -.683, indicating a strong, negative correlation. A two-sided Fisher’s Exact test Pr < = P = .018 with a 95% odds ratio and relative risks confidence interval of [0.07, 0.75] supports these results. Ancillary factor analysis with orthogonal rotation revealed that five subscales clustered into two distinct factors: telepresence and hindering phenomena, thus providing validation evidence for both the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (α = .895) and the Supervision Hindering Phenomena Survey (α = .740). Results from this study, combined with the research-informed framework for cybersupervision, form a foundation upon which future research on cybersupervision, social presence, and hindering phenomena may be developed in order to continue to understand and refine this growing practice in counselor education and supervision.
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