The SELCTV database : the susceptibility of arthropod natural enemies to agricultural pests to pesticides Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/pz50gz965

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  • Documentation of the side effects of pesticides on arthropod natural enemies has expanded rapidly since the 1950's as part of an increase in non-target side effects literature. Most reviews have been based on empirical analysis of selected literature. The SELCTV database was developed to make a larger information base accessible for characterization and analysis. The feasibility of such a database is a function of improving microcomputer technology and database management software. Record structure and scope of the SELCTV database included 40 information fields covering natural enemy biology, pesticide chemistry, toxicology and literature citations. SELCTV was assembled from over 900 published papers, believed to constitute 80-90% of available literature through the early 1980's. Currently, some 12,600 records contain taxonomic, biological, toxicological, reference and summary information for over 600 species of natural enemies in 88 families. Research was conducted in 58 countries around the world and included predators and parasitoids associated with 60 agricultural commodities. All major classes of pesticides are represented, including microbial insecticides. The impact of over 400 agricultural chemicals on natural enemies by means of one of ten basic test types has been distilled into SELCTV. Many different types of natural enemy responses were reported in the literature. In addition to recording these as documented, measurements were translated to a scale ranging from 1 (0% effect) to 5 (90-100% effect). This toxicity rating scale formed the basis for most SELCTV analysis. Selectivity ratios, resistance ratios and sublethal effects were other types of data which were recorded when possible. Lethal and sublethal effects were evaluated for many species, pesticide and test method data groupings. Results showed that predators were less susceptible and more variable in responses to pesticides than parasitoids. Relative susceptibility was computed for important natural enemy species. Among the most tolerant were Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Chrysopa carnea. Insecticides were the most toxic of pesticide classes, followed by herbicides, acaricides and fungicides, respectively. Among insecticide classes, a trend of increasing toxicity to natural enemies was demonstrated from the early inorganics to synthetic pyrethroids. More recent microbials and IGR's were less toxic and more selective. In addition to characterizing the natural enemy-pesticide impact literature and conducting selected analyses, several case studies were compiled to demonstrate application of SELCTV to decision making in pest management. Another compares results of SELCTV with a large standardization testing program from Europe. Increased size and degree of specificity of the information base were among research trends elucidated through chronological searches of SELCTV. Specific natural enemies, pesticides and test methods as assessment components have fluctuated relative to pesticide use, as well as testing and pest management philosophies. The study of diverse natural enemy responses to pesticides has led to the identification of unique factors that influence natural enemies in different ways or to a greater or lesser degree than pests. Differences in the susceptibility of pests, predators and parasitoids are discussed.
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