|Abstract or Summary
- Documentation of the side effects of pesticides on
arthropod natural enemies has expanded rapidly since the
1950's as part of an increase in non-target side effects
literature. Most reviews have been based on empirical
analysis of selected literature. The SELCTV database was
developed to make a larger information base accessible for
characterization and analysis. The feasibility of such a
database is a function of improving microcomputer
technology and database management software. Record
structure and scope of the SELCTV database included 40
information fields covering natural enemy biology,
pesticide chemistry, toxicology and literature citations.
SELCTV was assembled from over 900 published papers,
believed to constitute 80-90% of available literature
through the early 1980's. Currently, some 12,600 records
contain taxonomic, biological, toxicological, reference
and summary information for over 600 species of natural
enemies in 88 families. Research was conducted in 58
countries around the world and included predators and
parasitoids associated with 60 agricultural commodities.
All major classes of pesticides are represented, including
microbial insecticides. The impact of over 400
agricultural chemicals on natural enemies by means of one
of ten basic test types has been distilled into SELCTV. Many different types of natural enemy responses were
reported in the literature. In addition to recording
these as documented, measurements were translated to a
scale ranging from 1 (0% effect) to 5 (90-100% effect).
This toxicity rating scale formed the basis for most
SELCTV analysis. Selectivity ratios, resistance ratios
and sublethal effects were other types of data which were
recorded when possible.
Lethal and sublethal effects were evaluated for many
species, pesticide and test method data groupings.
Results showed that predators were less susceptible and
more variable in responses to pesticides than parasitoids.
Relative susceptibility was computed for important natural
enemy species. Among the most tolerant were Lycosa
pseudoannulata, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Chrysopa
carnea. Insecticides were the most toxic of pesticide
classes, followed by herbicides, acaricides and
fungicides, respectively. Among insecticide classes, a
trend of increasing toxicity to natural enemies was
demonstrated from the early inorganics to synthetic
pyrethroids. More recent microbials and IGR's were less
toxic and more selective.
In addition to characterizing the natural enemy-pesticide
impact literature and conducting selected
analyses, several case studies were compiled to
demonstrate application of SELCTV to decision making in
pest management. Another compares results of SELCTV with
a large standardization testing program from Europe.
Increased size and degree of specificity of the
information base were among research trends elucidated
through chronological searches of SELCTV. Specific
natural enemies, pesticides and test methods as assessment
components have fluctuated relative to pesticide use, as
well as testing and pest management philosophies. The
study of diverse natural enemy responses to pesticides has led to the identification of unique factors that influence
natural enemies in different ways or to a greater or
lesser degree than pests. Differences in the
susceptibility of pests, predators and parasitoids are