Nitrogen use and management in red raspberry Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/q811km846

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  • The effects of ¹⁵N-labeled fertilizer applied to mature summer-bearing red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants were measured over two years. Four nitrogen (N) treatments were applied singularly at 0, 40, or 80 kg·ha⁻¹ of N in early spring (budbreak), or split with 40 kg·ha⁻¹ of N (unlabeled) applied at budbreak and 40 kg·ha⁻¹ of N (¹⁵N-labeled) applied 8 weeks later. Plants were sampled six times per year to determine N and ¹⁵N content in the plant components throughout the growing season. Soil was also sampled seven times per year to determine inorganic N concentrations within the four treatments as well as a bare soil plot. There was a trend for the unfertilized treatment to have the lowest and for the split-N treatment to have the highest yield in both years. N application had no significant effect on plant dry weight or total N content in either year. Dry weight accumulation was 5.5 t·ha⁻¹ and total N accumulation was 88-96 kg·ha⁻¹ for aboveground biomass in fertilized plots in 2001. Of the total N present averaged over two years, 17% was removed in prunings, 12% was lost through primocane leaf senescence, 13% was removed through fruit harvest, 30% remained in the over-wintering plant, and 28% was considered lost or transported to the roots. Peak fertilizer N uptake occurred by July for the single N applications and by September for the last application in the split-N treatment. This uptake accounted for 36-37% (single applications) and 24% (split application) of the ¹⁵N applied. Plants receiving the highest single rate of fertilizer took up more fertilizer N while plants receiving the lower rate took up more N from the soil and from storage tissues. By mid-harvest, fertilizer N was found primarily in the fruit, fruiting laterals, and primocanes (94%) for all fertilized treatments; however, in the split application, the majority of this fertilizer N was located in the primocanes (60%). Stored fertilizer N distribution was similar in all fertilized treatments. By the end of the second year, 5-12% of the fertilizer acquired in 2001 remained m the fertilized plants. Soil nitrate concentrations increased after fertilization to 10.6 g·sampled volume⁻¹, but declined to an average of 4.8 g·sampled volume⁻¹ by fruit harvest. Seasonal soil N decline was partially attributed to plant uptake; however, leaching and immobilization into the organic fraction also contributed to the decline.
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