Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

Cardiovascular disease risk in adults with mental retardation and Down syndrome Public Deposited

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https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/q811kq31s

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  • Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have less atherosclerosis than others with and without mental retardation (MR). Why individuals with DS do not develop atherosclerosis similarly to others is not known. The insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), a common neuroendocrine disorder underlying cardiovascular disease, has not been investigated in adults with DS to determine if adults with DS possess a more protective CVD risk factor profile than other adults with MR. The CVD risk factor components of the IRS were measured in 145 adults with mild MR (N=70) and DS (N=75) who reside in community settings. The overall mean values for the CVD risk factors were relatively high for all participants, especially for women with MIR, who on average showed evidence of fasting hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjusting for age, smoking status, residence type, and medication use, women with DS had lower fasting glucose, resting blood pressure, and abdominal fat than women with IVIR, indicating that women with DS may be somewhat protected against CVD due to lower IRS risk factors as compared to women with MR. Adults with MR with abdominal obesity were approximately 2-10 times more likely than adults with MR without abdominal obesity to have hyperinsulinemia, borderline high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and borderline hypertension (P<0.05). Furthermore, the associations between abdominal obesity and elevated risk factors were independent of age, gender,presence of Down syndrome, smoking behavior, and medication use. Screening for abdominal obesity using simple anthropometric measures may be a cost-effective way to identify individuals with 1VIR with an intermediate to high risk for a future CVD event. Adults with MR who participated in the recommended frequency (>5 bouts week) of moderate to vigorous physical activity or who consumed a below average dietary fat intake (<35%) were approximately one third as likely to have hyperinsulinemia and abdominal obesity than adults with who participated in physical activity less than 5 times week or who consumed more than 35% of their total caloric intake from fats (P<0.05). Increasing physical activity and reducing dietary fat may help lower the risk for a future CVD event in adults with MR.
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