The influence of dietary fatty acids on tissue lipid composition in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) Public Deposited

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  • The effects of different dietary lipids on the growth, nutrition and tissue lipid profiles of rainbow trout raised to market size on a commercially available ration were examined. Rainbow trout of 80 g mean initial weight were fed pellets prepared according to Oregon Moist Pellet specifications for 20 weeks. Salmon oil (0MP-1), soybean oil (OMP-2), linseed oil (OMP-3), chicken fat (OMP-4), pork lard (OMP-5) and beef tallow (OMP-6) were used for the 6% lipid component of the diets. No differences in feed conversion or growth rate were observed across diet groups. Trout nutrition was monitored by three blood parameters -- red blood cell (RBC) fragility (hemolysis), packed cell volume (PCV) (hematocrit), and percent hemoglobin. The OMP-1 diet appeared to have caused oxidative stress in trout as measured by hemolysis, while hematocrit and percent hemoglobin values were uniform across diet groups. Tissue levels of total n-3 fatty acids were highest in the OMP-3 group and decreased in the order OMP-1 > OMP-2 = OMP-4 = OMP-5 = OMP-6. However, unaltered linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) comprised almost 50% of the n-3 fatty acid content of OMP-3 trout tissue lipid. The level of total 20:5 n-3 plus 22:6 n-3 (18%), was 33% higher in tissue from OMP-1 trout than tissue from all other diet groups which held fairly constant at 12% across OMP groups 3-6. The lowest tissue level of total 20:5 n-3 plus 22:6 n-3 was found in the OMP-2 trout, 10%. Trout raised on the OMP-1 diet also retained higher tissue stores of 20 and 22 carbon monoenes than trout fed OMP diets 2-6, but less than dietary levels. In contrast, trout fed OMP diets 2-6 retained higher tissue levels of these same fatty acids than dietary levels. The diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)/22:1 appeared to influence whether 22:1 was conserved or oxidized. The most favorable balance of trout tissue monoenes, n-6 fatty acids and total 20:5 n-3 plus 22:6 n-6 for human health was found in trout fed the OMP-6 diet.
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