Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation


Optimizing Cryptographic Obfuscation Public Deposited

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  • Cryptographic obfuscation is a powerful tool that makes programs “unintelligible” yet still runnable. It essentially gives programs the ability to keep secrets. The practical applications of obfuscation range from keeping secrets in banking applications to preventing software theft to providing secure messaging applications. The cryptographic applications of obfuscation are also vast – a tool that hides secrets in programs essentially enables all other cryptographic constructions. Despite (or perhaps due to) its power, obfuscation is currently wildly inefficient and on shaky theoretical ground. Its shaky theoretical ground in particular has resulted in a lack of engineering effort at making it more efficient. In this work, we focus largely on efficiency. We explore the concrete efficiency of multilinear maps, which are the basis of many cryptographic obfuscation constructions. Multilinear maps are mathematical objects that allow oblivious addition and multiplication of encrypted values. Using multilinear maps, we give the first ever implementations of obfuscation and multi-input functional encryption (MIFE: a variant of obfuscation) for branching programs. Along the way, we create the 5Gen framework for implementations of multilinear map-based applications. We apply the 5Gen framework to experiment with obfuscating point functions and MIFE of order-revealing encryption. We also explore efficiency in the context of obfuscators and MIFE for circuits. Circuits are more efficient than branching programs for many functions. We give the first MIFE construction for circuits and prove its security in an ideal model. Our scheme is efficient. To compare, we implement all known circuit obfuscation schemes using the 5Gen framework, and experiment with obfuscating a PRF. This results in the most complex PRF obfuscated to date – with 12 bits of security. Finally, recently Bishop et al. showed an obfuscation scheme for the specific functionality of wildcard pattern-matching [BKM+18]. This is a simple type of string matching where strings must match a pattern exactly except where there are wildcards. This obfuscation scheme simply relies on the generic group model, with no multilinear maps. Inspired by their work, and the deep connection of functional encryption to obfuscation, we give a function-private, public-key functional encryption scheme for the same wildcard pattern-matching functionality. Our scheme is the first such scheme and we prove its security in a generic model.
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