- The purpose of this study was to assess how growth of young to mature Douglas-fir
(Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sar.)
in mixed stands was influenced by the presence of residual trees. Fourteen paired plots with
and without residual trees were examined in a retrospective study on the Willamette National
Forest, Oregon. Growth was analyzed at the stand level, and at the individual tree level,
contrasting growth behavior of Douglas-fir and western hemlock. Stands were generally highly
stocked with relative densities between 0.38 and 1.05 and age ranged between 55 and 121
Results indicate that both understory and residual tree densities had a major influence
on average tree size and growth and yield of the young cohort. At the stand level, residual
trees and high understory densities reduced volume, basal area, and the mean squared
diameter of the young cohort, while understory mortality increased. The influence of residual
tree density on total understory and Douglas-fir volume and basal area was best fit by a
negative logarithmic function. After accounting for understory density effects, the decrease of
understory volume and basal area per individual residual tree decreased with increasing
residual tree density. With 5 to 50 residual trees/ha, total understory volume reduction was
22 and 45%, respectively, averaging 2.4 and 1.5% per residual tree, respectively. In mixed stands, Douglas-fir volume and basal area declined more rapidly than the volume and basal
area of the entire young cohort, when residual tree density exceeded 15 trees/ha. This was
probably due to the relative shade-intolerance of Douglas-fir. Douglas-fir volume and basal
area on southerly aspects was more than double the values on northerly aspects.
Examination of quadratic mean diameters and radial growth rates by crown class
revealed that the average size and growth rates of dominant Douglas-fir were not reduced by
residual trees. However, the number and basal area of understory trees, particularly
dominant and codominant Douglas-fir, declined with increasing residual tree densities.
Understory volume was highest in stands that had lowest understory densities. High
understory stocking levels were associated with reduced growth and high mortality rates of
the young cohort, suggesting stands were undergoing self-thinning.
At the individual tree level, basal area growth and diameter growth of trees increased
with increasing size and dominance. The marginal effect of residual trees declined with
increasing numbers of residual trees per hectare. No residual tree effects on heights of
dominant Douglas-fir was found, perhaps because the few dominant Douglas-firs may have
been located sufficiently far from residual trees to minimize interaction.
Due to high stocking levels in the young cohort, results from this study only apply to
stands with relative densities above 0.38. In addition, leave-trees in managed stands may be
younger, smaller, and may have different growth rates from residual trees in this study, thus
affecting the young cohort differently. Finally, due to the observational nature of this study,
cause-and-effect relationships cannot be established. However, since understory volume was
highest in stands with low understory densities, understory density management may reduce
growth losses from self-thinning of the young cohort and competition from leave-trees.