Multivariate relationships between leisure activities and personality Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/qr46r393w

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  • Purpose of the Study This investigation was an attempt to assess the relationship between selected variables of personality and leisure activity preferences using multivariate statistical procedures. It was shown that previous attempts to explain man's use of leisure have persistently emphasized demographic variables such as income, sex, occupation and age. While this concentration on demographic variables has provided some useful information, it has failed to provide a comprehensive explanation of leisure behavior. The inability of social indices to provide a complete explanation prompted some investigators to explore the psychological dimensions of leisure, specifically, the effect of personality variables on free time activity preferences. Empirical results provided by these investigators were found to be inconsistent and inconclusive. It was suggested that a primary reason for the inconclusive findings could be the limited statistical procedures used by previous researchers. Therefore, three multivariate statistics were employed in this study to more accurately determine whether a significant relationship existed between personality and leisure preferences, and if so, to what degree these free time choices could be predicted from a knowledge of personality characteristics. The theoretical framework for this study was provided by Murray's (1938) Need-Press Theory. Murray postulated that each individual has certain needs around which his or her personality is organized. It was suggested that many of the needs Murray believes to underlie human functioning in general could be directly applicable to leisure activity preferences. It was assumed that an individual selects specific leisure activities on the basis of their ability to satisfy certain needs. Procedures Subjects for this study included male and female high school students in grades 10-12. The 139 subjects who participated were drawn from randomly selected classes in social science, science, and physical education. The Leisure Activity Questionnaire, representing a modified version of Witt's (1971) questionnaire, was used to collect data on the preferences of students for 32 leisure activities. The Personality Research Form, based on Murray's Need-Press Theory, provided scores which measured 14 personality needs relevant to a wide variety of human functioning. The data were analyzed using three multivariate statistical procedures: canonical analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. Canonical analysis was used to determine the degree of confidence which could be placed in the overall hypothesis that personality variables and leisure activity preferences were significantly related. Factor analysis provided additional insight into this relationship through the correlation of factor scores with selected personality variables. In addition, factor analysis was employed to extract the minimum number of dimensions necessary to account for most of the variance in the reported leisure activities of the study's subjects. The extracted factors were compared to those identified earlier by Witt (1971). Discriminant analysis also used the derived factors in determining the probability of a subject's classification into one of these leisure activity dimensions based on his personality characteristics. Conclusions 1. Selected variables of personality were significantly related to leisure activity preferences. These results lend support to the notion that different leisure activities appear to attract individuals with different needs. 2. Four factors or independent dimensions of leisure activity were extracted from the data. Three of the factors, Outdoor-Nature, Sports, and Aesthetic-Sophisticate, demonstrated a marked similarity to factors found in an earlier investigation. The fourth factor, labeled Leisure Detachment, displayed no resemblance to previous research findings. 3. A correlation of leisure activity factor scores with the 14 PRF variables produced several statistically significant relationships. These significant correlations provided substantial empirical support for the four factor interpretations. 4. The use of selected variables of personality substantially increased the probability of correctly predicting leisure activity preferences.
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-12-02T18:06:10Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 HowardDennisR1974.pdf: 669932 bytes, checksum: 1dd78c83b94433a8992c220509263966 (MD5)
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-12-12T18:59:52Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 HowardDennisR1974.pdf: 669932 bytes, checksum: 1dd78c83b94433a8992c220509263966 (MD5)

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