Dine right with MENu insight : a nutrition education program for men Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/qz20sw01g

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  • The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a nutrition education program for men on healthy eating when dining out. The Health Belief Model provided the basic framework to identify factors that would potentially motivate men over 40 to change their dietary behavior to reduce heart disease risk. Roundtable discussions were held to identify nutrition needs. A 10 minute "Dine Right with MENu Insight" slide program on low-fat eating away from home was developed. Three educational messages were the key concepts of the program: 1) relationship between diet and health, 2) proportionality, variety and moderation as themes of the Food Guide Pyramid and 3) low-fat food choices at home and away. A four page handout was developed to supplement the slide show presentation. Four programs were presented to a total of 148 people (136 males, 12 females) at Rotary and Kiwanis groups in Corvallis and Albany, Oregon in January and February, 1994. Each program included a pretest, the "Dine Right with MENu Insight" slide presentation and a group discussion. Of the 136 males, forty-eight volunteered (aged 40-60 years) and completed the 10-15 minute follow-up phone post-test 3-4 weeks after attending the program. Pre-test responses showed limited knowledge of the Food Guide Pyramid, with 65% of the men incorrectly selecting the vegetable group as the base of the Pyramid. Knowledge of low-fat menu choices was high with an average score of 4.7+1.1 (out of a possible 5 points) and a range of 0-5 prior to the education program. An attitude score measuring awareness of healthy dietary practices underlying the Pyramid (eg, variety, proportionality and moderation) had a mean of 5.3+1.7 (out of a possible 15) with a range of 3-8. These pre-test data suggested that participants were aware of the relationship between diet and health. In the post-test, 98% of the men correctly selected the bread group as the Food Guide Pyramid food group that should be eaten in the largest amount. This was a significant increase (p<.001) from pre-test scores. Half of the men had heard of the Pyramid prior to the program. A reassessment of healthy dietary practices awareness showed a significant increase in positive attitudes (p [less than or equal to] .001) with a mean of 3.6+.93 (out of a possible 15 points) and a range of 5-7. Seventy-three percent of the men reported that their diet could be "somewhat healthier". In the past year, 69% reported increasing their consumption of foods (eg, vegetables, grains) to reduce heart disease; 79% reported decreased consumption (eg, red meat). Seventy-five percent reported that they "sometimes" try to select lower fat foods when eating out. Personal preference (65%), menu selection (80%) and the restaurant (27%) influenced lower fat food selection decisions. Many participants indicated awareness of the relationship between proper food selection and optimal health before the program. However, awareness did increase as a result of the program. There was a significant positive (p [less than or equal to] .005) change in attitudes toward the importance of watching fat in the diet in order to stay healthy between pre and posttests. In addition, a positive (r=.36, p [less than or equal to] .05) correlation was reported between knowing that the amount of dietary fat affects the chance of heart disease and watching fat in the diet in order to stay healthy. These data suggest that the Dine Right program conveyed a tie between diet and optimum health. Significant changes in participants' knowledge about the Food Guide Pyramid and underlying concepts also suggest that the program had an impact on participants. These data suggest that knowledge of nutritious food choices at home and away from home increased or was reinforced by the program. The majority (79%) of men learned "some new things" from the program. As a result of the program, 65% planned on making changes in their diets when eating out (eg, by increasing grains, fruits, vegetables). Thirty-five percent planned to make changes at home. Eighty-three percent reported showing the Dine Right handout to someone else and 85% talked about the program with their spouse, family member, coworker or friend. The results of this research indicate that men respond to nutrition education programs. Therefore nutrition and health campaigns to reach the American male are merited. Men's health and nutrition programs such as "Dine Right with MENu Insight" could be followed by additional education programs utilizing a theoretical framework. Future research should test each of the components of the Health Belief Model on men's dietary behavior. Also extensions to other samples of men (such as those with lower educational levels) is warranted in order to better understand how to target nutrition education programs to this important audience.
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