Cloning and characterization of GRASP, a novel retinoic acid-induced gene from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/qz20sw031

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  • Retinoic acid (RA) exerts important effects in the processes of vertebrate development, cellular growth and differentiation, and homeostasis. However, the mechanisms of action of RA in the control of cellular and developmental processes are incompletely understood, as the retinoid target genes have not been fully characterized. The goal of these studies described herein was to contribute towards a greater understanding of the cellular effects of retinoids through the identification and characterization of an RA-induced gene from mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of GRASP is characterized by several putative protein-protein interaction motifs, suggesting that GRASP may function in cell signaling pathways. Towards the goal of identifying which signaling pathways GRASP may participate in, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed using GRASP as a bait to identify protein interaction partners. The general receptor for phosphinositides 1 (GRP1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) GTPase, was identified as a GRASP interaction partner. GRASP was shown to colocalize with endogenous ARFs in cells and enhance GRP1 association with the plasma membrane, suggesting that GRASP may function as a scaffold protein in the recruitment of GRP1 and ARF6 to plasma membrane loci. Overexpression of GRASP was observed to induce accumulation of GRASP in the endosomal compartment where GTP-binding deficient mutants of ARF6 reside, suggesting that GRASP induced a block in an ARF6 plasma membrane recycling pathway. Coexpression of GRP1, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, dramatically reduced the accumulation of GRASP in this compartment. Furthermore, GRP1 mutants that lack the region of interaction with GRASP failed to prevent accumulation of GRASP in the endosomal compartment, suggesting that GRASP recruits GRP1 to the endosomal compartment where GRP1 stimulates nucleotide exchange on ARF6 and recycling. Results described herein demonstrate that GRASP functions in the ARF6 regulated plasma membrane recycling pathway, and that upon overexpression, induces a block in recycling. Our results suggest a role for GRASP as an adapter or scaffold protein that may link cell surface receptors to the ARF6 recycling pathway, resulting in modulation of signal transduction events at the cell surface.
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