Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation

 

North Umpqua end scrapers : allometry, discard, and residual utility Public Deposited

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  • End scrapers were an "all purpose" tool that have been associated with processes such as planing or shaving vegetal resources, shaping bone or antler implements, and to render hide into usable fabric. Examining end scrapers from four different archaeological sites on the North Umpqua River of southwestern Oregon provided interesting data regarding the use of these tools over time. Each site consists of at least one, or several, occupational components providing an opportunity to compare similarities and differences between sites. Analyses rely in part on the comparison of multi-dimensional characteristics, or allometry, of the stone tools. Statistically, the relationship between the length of an end scraper and its thickest point has been previously suggested to be demonstrative of the original size of the tool. A similar conclusion was acquired during this analysis, which then sought to determine if a discard ratio for each site could be established based on the length and edge angle of the end scrapers. The discard ratio was originally thought to represent a reflection of functional efficiency, differential resource processing, or material availability. A bulk analysis of material types from the overall assemblages and a comparison of end scraper composition suggested intensive use of obsidian, the non-local material. Overall, trends could not be demonstrated using the discard ratio to represent the degree of use as end scrapers size depends on lithic technology, material availability, and perhaps a specific need. Perhaps the most intriguing outcome of this study relates to the individual Middle Archaic component at the Meg's Keep site. Based on the large obsidian artifact assemblage, this site is thought to have been a task specific location and that the large number of end scrapers recovered were manufactured elsewhere and imported to the site. Comparing end scrapers at each site suggested that Type 1 scraper (≥7.5 mm) may be an indicator of curation. The analyses indicate that Type 1 CCS end scrapers at Canton Creek, Dry Creek, and Boulder Confluence out-numbered Type 3 scrapers 20 to 4. In contrast, the large number of end scrapers at Meg's Keep had a total of 9 Type 1 end scrapers. From the above data, Type 1 and Type 3 end scrapers appear to be a direct result of the availability of raw material and potentially an indicator of curation.
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