The effects of nondirective group play therapy upon the sociometric status and self-concept of selected second grade children Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/rb68xf54t

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  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of nondirective group play on the self-concept and sociometric status of selected members of second grade classrooms. Specific hypotheses examined were: 1. Positive change in self-concept as measured by the Scamin Self-Concept Scale will be greater in the experimental group than in either of the control groups at the termination of treatment. 2. Positive change in sociometric status as measured by the pre and post-test sociogram will be greater in the experimental group than in either of the control groups at the termination of treatment. A review of the literature in nondirective play suggests that the effectiveness of such a counseling technique has not been validated. There appears to be a need for carefully controlled research to evaluate the process and effects of nondirective play as a counseling technique. The sample consisted of second grade children in the Lebanon, Oregon, public schools who were identified as underchosen on a sociometric test. Thirty-six individuals participated in the experiment. These individuals were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of 12 members, six females and six males. The experimental group was exposed to nondirective group play for ten weeks. Control group I was exposed to a specialized reading group for ten weeks. Control group II received no attention other than the pre and post-tests. Complete testing data was obtained for all 36 subjects. The Scamin Self-Concept Scale and a sociometric test were administered to subjects prior to the beginning of the research and at the conclusion of the project. The two-factor mixed design: repeated measures on one factor analysis of variance was used comparing experimental and control groups on each instrument. The interaction effect of the self-concept score analysis yielded an F ratio of 10.64, significant at the .01 level. The first hypothesis was supported. Subjects exposed to nondirective play did show a significantly greater increase in self-concept scores than those subjects in the control groups. The interaction effect of the sociometric test score analysis yielded an F-ratio of 2.49, which is not significant. There was a significant gain in scores between the pre-test and post-test sociometric scores over all three groups as shown by the F ratio of 7.52. This is significant at the .01 level. Hypothesis number two was not supported. The subjects exposed to nondirective play did not show a significant superiority in sociometric status score gain. The evidence from this study indicates that participation in non-directive play brings about increases in self-concept in those children identified as underchosen by a sociometric test. No significant effect of the treatment variable on sociometric status was found in this research. Recommendations for further research in nondirective play include: 1. Evaluation using long-term follow-up tests. 2. Investigation with different age groups. 3. Use of complete randomization of a particular age group in the selection of participants. 4. Investigation of the process of nondirective play to ascertain behavioral descriptions. 5. Investigation of the effects of the 20 minute sociometric pre and post7testing periods. 6. Repeat this study later in school year when social relationships have stabilized. 7. Investigation of the amount of fluctuation expected in sociometric relationships at the second grade level.
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