- Societies around the globe are concerned with climate change and supplementing the use of fossil fuels to create cleaner energy. The emergence of marine alternative energy is of scientific, historical, legal, and political interest. The purpose of the three manuscripts comprising this dissertation is to provide research and analysis of how wave energy, as an innovative carbon-neutral technology, is becoming established in areas of the United States (including Oregon) and the United Kingdom. Manuscript one, "Emerging from the Deep: Pacific Coast Wave Energy," explores the early years of wave energy policy development in Oregon. Manuscript two, "A Rising Tide: Wave Energy in the United States and Scotland," compares the policy, legal and regulatory underpinnings of wave and other hydrokinetic energy in the United States and Scotland, which lead global research and development for hydrokinetics. Manuscript three, "An Examination of U.S. Conflict Mitigation Tools for Offshore Alternative Energy," examines trends in the development of best practices for conflict avoidance for marine alternative energy siting, including offshore wind, tidal, current and wave energy installations. Together, the findings of the three manuscripts reveal the barriers to marine energy planning, and also the best practices toward getting the new industry established. The barriers to offshore marine energy have thus far included technical challenges, agency jurisdiction, the crafting of an effective regulatory permitting and licensing process, insufficient public and private financing, higher kilowatt hour cost, lack of scientific data, lack of empirical operations data, spatial competition (and sometimes conflict) in siting issues, and the need for stakeholder acceptability. The best planning and governance practices that are emerging internationally for enhancing the industry's viability include national priority research and development cost sharing, tax and other incentives, marine spatial planning with designated special areas or other processes for assessing compatible uses, a system to effectively prevent and mitigate spatial conflict, and provision of a testing location where engineering and design work can be proven under actual ocean conditions.