Distribution and life history of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) off the Oregon and Washington coasts Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/rj430791k

Descriptions

Attribute NameValues
Creator
Abstract or Summary
  • This study examines the spatial and temporal distribution and life history of the "offshore" component of the Northeastern Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) population. Distribution was examined in relation to latitude, depth, the Columbia River plume and large-scale climate changes. Fishery and survey data indicate that the Northeastern Pacific spiny dogfish population has a broad range along the Washington and Oregon coasts, with the highest abundance occurring off the northern Washington and central Oregon coasts. Catches, however, were patchy throughout the 37-year period of available survey data. In terms of depth, the greatest abundances of spiny dogfish were captured in shallow waters (55-184 m). An examination of the influence of the Columbia River plume using a generalized additive model (GAM) indicated that the fish were influenced significantly by the salinity, chlorophyll and surface temperature patterns associated with the plume, preferring the oceanic zone to the plume zone. In contrast, there was no indication that the catch-per-unit-effort of spiny dogfish was influenced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) or the El-Niño (ENSO) over 24-year period of the National Marine Fisheries (NMFS) triennial shelf groundfish survey (1977-2001). The multi-cohort age structure of the population, due to the spiny dogfish's late age at maturity and long lifespan, as well as the low fecundity make it difficult to detect the loss of a single cohort or two when examining abundance trends. Moreover, effects on abundance may be time-lagged, especially if, as is likely, the youngest cohort(s) is the most vulnerable life stage. Their absence would not become evident until they were large enough to have been captured by the survey gear. Sensitive abundance data and/or age-structured data would be needed to identify a pattern. I quantified the age, maturation and fecundity of the spiny dogfish and use these data to develop an age-structured matrix model to examine the sensitivity of the population's growth rate to changes in mortality (i.e. fishing). Female spiny dogfish in this population have an average age at 50% maturity of 28 years and males 20 years. Average length at 50% maturity was 85.0 cm for females and 71.5 cm for males. Female fecundity was extremely low, averaging eight pups per clutch biennially and ranging from four to 14. The number of pups increased with length, but not age. Using these data, a deterministic, female-based model was developed. Asymptotic population growth rate (λ) was determined to be very low, 1.01, and comparable to population growth rates calculated for "coastal" populations. When fishing mortality was incorporated into the model, the fishery was only sustainable when exploitation was low and strict size limits enforced. When fecundity was doubled, the population growth rate increased from 1% to 3% per year. This 33% increase in population growth was equivalent to the effect of a decrease in the age at first maturity of three years. Given that responses to changes in population demographics through shifts in fecundity or spawning frequency are likely constrained, responses would then seem likely to involve changes in age at maturity. These life history traits translate into a low potential population growth and as a consequence high susceptibility to overfishing. My findings indicate that the Northeastern Pacific spiny dogfish are relatively slow growing, late to mature, and have low fecundity and a patchy distribution, with large catches occurring off the northern Washington and central Oregon coasts in shallow waters (55-184 m). These life history traits and distributional patterns are useful in the development of population models to predict responses to environmental fluctuations or increased mortality and thus the management of the population. It is evident from my findings that periodic monitoring is necessary to track possible catch declines off the northern Washington and central Oregon coasts and prevent collapse of the population should it be targeted by a fishery and overfishing occur.
Resource Type
Date Available
Date Copyright
Date Issued
Degree Level
Degree Name
Degree Field
Degree Grantor
Commencement Year
Advisor
Academic Affiliation
Non-Academic Affiliation
Subject
Rights Statement
Peer Reviewed
Language
Digitization Specifications
  • File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 256 Grayscale) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR.
Replaces
Additional Information
  • description.provenance : Submitted by Sergio Trujillo (jstscanner@gmail.com) on 2012-05-23T00:51:37Z No. of bitstreams: 1 RichardsJaclynM2005.pdf: 2769452 bytes, checksum: b8c33f491fef935e0f722fa2de999edf (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-06-05T17:50:38Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 RichardsJaclynM2005.pdf: 2769452 bytes, checksum: b8c33f491fef935e0f722fa2de999edf (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Patricia Black(patricia.black@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-06-06T17:49:38Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 RichardsJaclynM2005.pdf: 2769452 bytes, checksum: b8c33f491fef935e0f722fa2de999edf (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2012-06-06T17:49:38Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 RichardsJaclynM2005.pdf: 2769452 bytes, checksum: b8c33f491fef935e0f722fa2de999edf (MD5) Previous issue date: 2004-05-24

Relationships

In Administrative Set:
Last modified: 08/20/2017

Downloadable Content

Download PDF
Citations:

EndNote | Zotero | Mendeley

Items