This study examined relationships between pre-tested early literacy skills and post-tested reading achievement in 52 kindergarten and 39 first-grade children. An archival data set was available for statistical analysis. Data analysis was completed in three stages: Participants' entry-level literacy and language scores were compared on two Assessment of Literacy and Language (ALL) screening subtests. At the kindergarten level, the literacy-based and language-based subtests included the ALL letter knowledge and basic concepts subtests. The screening test for first graders included the ALL phonics and the parallel-production subtests. Prior to data analysis, the two kindergartens ALL pre-test scores were used to identify children at risk for developing reading problems. At risk was defined as pre-test scores at or below the 25th percentile on one or both screening pretests. Three groups emerged from this analysis: a group with scores below the 25th percentile cut-off point on one subtest (one deficit group), a group with scores below the cut-off point on both literacy and language subtests (two deficits group), and a third group who scored above the cut-off point on both subtests. Repeated measures' means analyses (Keselman, 1994) of the three groups were compared on pretest and post test measures. This analysis was followed by a series of regression analyses to test models for best-fit predictions of reading achievement outcomes on the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE). Results of the study found that this group of kindergarten children enrolled in school with weak letter-knowledge skills. Over 42 percent of the kindergarten participants were at risk for this one literacy skill deficiency alone. Thirty-eight percent were at risk because of literacy and language-based deficits, and only nineteen percent of the class had no deficiencies. End-of-year achievement was directly related to the number of entry-level deficits. Children with one deficit obtained significantly higher word-reading achievement scores than children with two deficits, and children with no deficits scored significantly higher than both groups on word-reading achievement outcomes. The best-fit prediction equation for kindergarteners included phonological awareness and basic concepts. Both subtests significantly predicted reading outcomes at the kindergarten level. A literacy and spoken language combination of skills were best-fit predictors of end-of-the-year word reading and reading comprehension for first graders. At the first-grade level, vocabulary was significantly correlated with reading comprehension. The differential roles of literacy and language were discussed in relation to word reading and reading comprehension achievement outcomes.