Hip loading during the squat exercise Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/rx913s858

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  • Hip fractures have high mortality and morbidity rates after incidence, with osteoporosis being a major risk factor due to the loss of bone mineral density (BMD). Lower-body resistance exercises, such as squats, can provide sufficient loading on the hip to induce osteogenic effects. However, this loading may depend on how the exercise is performed. The purpose of this study was twofold: determine the loading on the hip as a function of squat depth, and examine the extent to which this relationship is affected by adding static resistance to the upper body. Twenty healthy women, from 35-49 years of age, performed sets of shallow-, medium-shallow-, medium-deep-, and deep-depth squats, both with and without upper-body static resistance in the form of a 5.4 kg weighted vest. From recorded motion capture and ground reaction data, the depth of each squat (i.e. peak knee flexion) and peak loading on the hip joint were calculated using a biomechanical model. Increases in squat depth and in peak trunk flexion increased the overall magnitude of hip loading during the squat exercise by 8.6% body weight (BW)/deg and 2.4% BW/deg, respectively, on average. For squat depths greater than 50°, the weighted vest increased the effect of squat depth on the overall magnitude of hip loading by 2.0% BW/deg. The results suggest that by squatting to deeper depths, with increased trunk flexion, and while wearing a weighted vest, it is possible to place high loads on the hip that may increase BMD and, in turn, reduce the risk of hip fractures.
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