Oral immunization for the control of vibriosis in Pacific salmon Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/s1784p93h

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  • An oral vaccine was developed for control of vibriosis in Pacific salmon. The vaccine consists of a lyophilized sonicate of cells of Vibrio anguillarum, the causative agent of this disease. The preparation was incorporated into a ration and fed to salmon in fresh water before the fish were transported and exposed to the disease at the Lint Slough marine rearing facility, Waldport, Oregon. Spring and fall chinook salmon were fed vaccine at a level of 300 μg per fish over a 14-day period. This resulted in 27% mortality in vaccinated salmon as compared to 97% in nonvaccinated fish. Vaccine was fed to spring chinook salmon at 100, 200, and 300 μg per fish over a 14-day interval. At a dosage of 100 rig, mortality sharply increased to 58% whereas 200 and 300 μg resulted in 33% mortality. Salmon receiving no vaccine had a 90% mortality. Spring chinook were fed vaccine at 200, 300, 500, 700, and 1,000 μg per fish over a 14-day period. Increasing the dosage did not lower the mortality. The mortality was about 20% in the vaccinated groups of fish as compared to 90% in the nonvaccinated fish. Feeding booster vaccine in fresh or salt water did not further reduce mortality. Coho salmon were fed vaccine at 1,000 μg per fish over a 28-day period instead of a 14-day period. This resulted in less than three percent mortality for vaccinated animals as compared to 90% mortality in nonvaccinated fish. The nature of the immunity was investigated. Salmon which demonstrated high levels of protection after oral immunization were examined for humoral antibody. None was found. This suggested a localized immunity. There is a suggestion of some specificity for vibriosis as a result of receiving vibriosis vaccine. A vaccine was prepared from Aeromonas salmonicida, another Gram negative fish pathogen. Mortality in A. salmonicida vaccinated salmon was as high as in nonvaccinated animals when exposed to vibriosis.
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