Effects of three herbicides on yields of five cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) Public Deposited

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  • With the development of new selective herbicides and the frequent change in commercial wheat cultivars, information is needed as to the possible interaction between cultivars and herbicides. The responses of five genotypically diverse wheat cultivars (Bezostaya, Daws, Maris Hobbit, Stephens and Yamhill) to diuron [3-(3,4-dichloropheny1)-1,1- dimethylurea], diclofop methyl 2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy] propanoate and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) herbicides were compared under field and greenhouse conditions during the 1979-80 growing season. Grain yield was considered as a measure of herbicide injury when compared to the control plots for each cultivar. Effect on components of yield, plant height and grain protein content also were investigated. Differences in yield performance and related agronomic characters could be attributed to specific herbicides, designated rates and growth stages at the time of application. The lower (1.4 kg/ha) rate of diuron, diclofop and 2,4-D reduced yields less than the higher rate (2.8 kg/ha). Diuron and diclofop applied at the earlier (three to to five leaf) growth stage caused greater yield reductions than when applied at the later (five to six tiller) growth stage. Differential yield responses were found among and within the five winter wheat cultivars. The higher rate of diuron (2.8 kg/ha) caused the most injury in all of the cultivars tested. Major injury from diclofop occurred on the cultivar Maris Hobbit with minor effects on the other four cultivars. The primary reduction in yield from application of 2,4-D was to the cultivar Bezostaya. Among the five wheat cultivars tested in this experiment, Daws was the most tolerant to the three herbicides tested. Among the yield components (number of spikes per unit area, kernels per spike and 1000 kernel weight), number of kernels per spike accounted for most of the variation in yield. The data showed a direct relationship between kernel number and grain yield. Grain protein percentage of Daws, Maris Hobbit, Stephens and Yamhill significantly increased at the higher rate of diuron; whereas a similar increase was noted only in Bezostaya at the lower rate of 2,4-D. These increases in protein were associated with significant decreases in yield. Yield reductions due to herbicide treatments were generally lower than those due to weed competition. Reductions in yield and corresponding changes in the other agronomic characteristics observed in this experiment were the result of concentrations which are higher than those normally used in spraying wheat for weed control. This high chemical dosage was chosen for each herbicide to assure a greater differential response among and within the wheat cultivars. It also provided information for the plant breeder as to which cultivars had higher levels of tolerance. Such information is important when making hybrid combinations for the development of future varieties if higher levels of tolerance to specific herbicides are required.
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