State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) are the primary owners of roadway infrastructure in the United States. Many of the employees of state DOTs work on roadway work sites, putting them at disproportionately higher risks of injury or fatality. A review of the literature determined that a combination of policies, standards, and data can be used to potentially reduce these risks. Understanding current practices at state DOTs for promoting and documenting the safety of their employees is critical to understanding successes and deficiencies to improve resource allocation. To determine the state of the practice, a survey of state DOT practices followed-by state DOT safety program case studies were conducted. The results confirmed that state DOTs are diverse agencies that have different scopes and priorities. The survey results provided evidence of this diversity from how incidents are recorded and archived to how data is collected and used at each agency. The case studies demonstrated a variety of safety programs that use various levels of data in the processes of program development and evaluation. Overall, data is not well integrated into state DOT safety programs and there is significant opportunity to expand the ways in which data is used to reduce risk to highway workers.