Graduate Thesis Or Dissertation


Improvement of white western wheat for chickens through application of dietary additives Public Deposited

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  • Studies were conducted with Indian River "Hybro" broiler chicks and Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station dwarf and normal White Leghorn hens to improve the utilization of white western wheat. Chick studies were primarily concerned with characterizing the growth inducing properties of an antibiotic fermentation residue (Vigofac) which had shown a greater growth response with wheat- than corn-base rations. In the adult study, evaluations were made as to the effect of feeding Vigofac and safflower oil on various performance parameters of wheat-fed hens. In both the chick and adult bird studies the feeding value of wheat was evaluated relative to corn. The Vigofac research with chicks was divided into (1) nature of activity, (2) mode of activity, and (3) comparative growth effects. Results of the nature of the activity confirmed that the growth inducing activity of Vigofac, which consists of an extract and a carrier component, was found solely in the extract. No activity was found when Vigofac was ashed which indicates that it is probably organic in nature. Results suggest that the carrier, while not active, might stabilize the activity of the extract, since experiments showed the activity of the extract was destroyed by boiling for 60 minutes, while that of Vigofac (extract and carrier) was not affected by autoclaving for 30 minutes at 15 psi and 121°C. Soaking Vigofac for 96 hours in acidic (0. 1N hydrochloric acid) and basic (0. 1N or 1. 0N sodium hydroxide) solutions appeared to enhance its activity. Soaking it for a similar period in water or 95 percent ethanol resulted in no improvement. It was concluded that the above enhanced activity was not due to fermentation since water soaking should not have impaired fermentation. Comparatively the activity of zinc bacitracin (275 ppm) also was not adversely affected by autoclaving and was improved following soaking in the same acidic and basic solutions. In two respects the activity of Vigofac appeared to be dissimilar from that of distillers dried solubles (DDS). As mentioned, Vigofac activity was found to be organic in nature whereas DDS has been reported to include inorganic activity as well. Also no active Vigofac fractions were found following a fractionation procedure used to isolate such fractions from DDS. It was found that phenolic acids, reported as active isolates of DDS, have inconsistent growth promoting activity when fed individually or collectively. Research showed that Vigofac appears to promote growth primarily by inducing increased feed consumption. Energy analyses of droppings showed that it likely increases the utilization of wheat energy, but not that of corn which may account for the greater growth promotion noted when it is supplemented to wheat than when added to corn. It did not alter intestine, thyroid or pancreas weights relative to body weight. Comparatively, zinc bacitracin (275 ppm) also improved wheat energy and zinc bacitracin and five percent herring meal feeding caused a significant reduction in relative intestinal weight. Herring meal feeding also resulted in reduced relative thyroid weight. In addition to Vigofac the fermentation products Fermacto 500, Pryferm H. B., Liquid Streptomyces Solubles, UNF-40 and Solulac as well as the antibiotic zinc bacitracin promoted growth to a greater extent when added to a wheat- than to a corn-base ration. Results showed that the variable growth response associated with fermentation products such as Vigofac may be due to the presence of antibiotics which induce a somewhat overlapping response. Growth responses, though not completely additive, were greatest when Vigofac, herring meal and zinc bacitracin were fed simultaneously rather than individually. In view of the fact that Vigofac appears to stimulate growth primarily through increased feed consumption and because where zinc bacitracin and Vigofac were compared together they differed appreciably only in their effect on intestinal weight, the effect of Vigofac thus appears to be more closely related to that of a growth promotant, as are antibiotics, rather than as a source of unidentified nutrients. The laying hen performance variables namely: egg production, feed consumption, feed per dozen eggs, egg weight, shell thickness, body weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk color, shell weight, yolk weight and albumen weight were measured at periodic intervals over a 280 day period for dwarf hens receiving either corn- or wheatbase diets as well as for their normal half sisters receiving a cornbase diet. Where wheat was substituted for corn on a unit for unit basis, wheat-fed dwarf hens consumed significantly more feed per day, and produced eggs that were significantly smaller which contained significantly lighter colored yolks than did corn fed dwarfs. Eggs of the wheat-fed layers were found equal in size to those of the corn-fed when two percent safflower oil was substituted in the wheat base ration for animal fat. It was concluded that the increase in egg size for the wheat group was due to the additional dietary linoleic acid supplied by the safflower oil. Despite the fact that the yolk color was significantly lighter for the wheat fed hens, it was not objectionably light due to xanthophyll contributed by alfalfa meal. The dietary addition of Vigofac did not improve laying hen performance. Relative ranges of the dwarf treatments to the normals were as follows: egg production, 72.7 to 76.3 percent; feed consumption,69. 7 to 72.4 percent; feed per dozen eggs, 93. 6 to 97. 3 percent; and egg weight, 92. 9 to 93.8 percent.
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