The lateral movement of cycloate as affected by three soil types and four methods of irrigation when applied to the soil by injection incorporation Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/sb397c332

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  • Lateral diffusion of S-ethyl N-ethylthiocyclohexanecarbamate (cycloate)¹ is essential for satisfactory weed control with injection type incorporation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris Linn.) production. Previous field experience with injection incorporation has indicated that sufficient lateral diffusion for satisfactory weed control has not occurred under all field conditions. Researchers who have been closely associated with injection incorporation of cycloate have attributed soil physical properties as the most important factor limiting lateral diffusion. Studies were conducted in the greenhouse to investigate the effects of soil texture, irrigation methods, and weed densities on the lateral diffusion of cycloate. In these studies barnyard grass ¹Trade name is Roneet. (Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) was the indicator plant used in the bioassay analysis. Onyx silt loam (3.57% O.M.), Shano silt loam (.71% O.M.), and Quincy loamy sand (.49% O.M.) type soils were used to determine the influence of soil texture on the extent of lateral diffusion. Approximately 40% more lateral herbicide movement and 50% more growth inhibition occurred with Quincy loamy sand than in the silt loam soils. Cycloate injected into moist soils consistently resulted in greater distances of lateral diffusion and more rapid herbicidal activity than when injected into dry soil and followed by an irrigation. This effect was noted with all soil textures. Both sprinkler and sub-type irrigations restricted the lateral diffusion of cycloate in silt loam soils to the extent that barnyard grass growth was not inhibited in the beet row between the lines of herbicide injection. This effect was not noted with furrow irrigation. The normal water movement under furrow irrigation aided in the desired lateral herbicide diffusion. Delaying the application of an irrigation for 24 hours after cycloate was injected into Quincy loamy sand did not reduce the herbicide movement by flowing water. Barnyard grass seedlings at high densities restricted cycloate diffusion and reduced the herbicidal effect. These results may have been caused by a reduction in herbicide concentration by plant adsorption over the points of injection; thus lowering the diffusion gradient to the extent that cycloate did not diffuse in lethal concentrations. In fine textured soils weed control was consistently better when cycloate was incorporated by mixing rather than injection type incorporation. Benefits from mixing type incorporation will be even more significant if an irrigation is required for crop seed germination.
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